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BARTON UPON HUMBER: Industrial History: Bibliography
Books and other printed sources on the industrial heritage of the town


The area on the south bank of the River Humber in which Barton-upon-Humber sits was occupied from the earliest times. The Humber was a major supply route to York during the Roman occupation. By the time of Domesday there was a church, two mills, a market and a ferry.

Barton developed around what is now Barton Haven. In medieval times Barton was a major port particularly in the Baltic trade. There was shipbuilding on Barton Haven into the twentieth century.

On either side of the Haven the Humber bank clays are ideal for brick and tile making. At the peak at the end of the nineteenth century there were thirteen brickyards in Barton parish. Today there is only one.

Alongside the Haven was Hall’s Barton Ropery, whose origin can be traced to the late eighteenth century. Ropes continued to be made here until 1988. Today the building has several new uses, including a rope making museum, and boasts the longest pantiled roof in the country.

Overlooking the Haven is the Humber Bridge, opened in 1981, which at the time of its construction was the longest single span bridge in the world.

The hills surrounding the town are Cretaceous chalk. These are still quarried for the cement works at South Ferriby, three miles to the west.

Surviving in the centre of Barton is the Old Mill which was built to manufacture whiting (one of several such mills). It lost its sails in 1868 and by the 1980s was derelict. It was restored in 1990 and now is a pub and restaurant with some of the mill machinery still to be seen in the tower.

 

Books and other Printed Sources 

  • Booth, Adrian, William Blyth’s Tileries, Railway Bylines, 1998 
  • Bryant, GeoffreyThe Early History of Barton of Humber, Barton-on-Humber: Workers Education Association, 1981
  • Bryant, Geoffrey F and Land, Nigel, DBricks, Tiles and Bicycles in Barton before 1900, Barton-on-Humber: Workers Education Association, 2007
  • Clapson, RodneyA Lincolnshire Shipyard, Barton upon Humber, author, 2014
  • Clapson, RodneyBarton and the River Humber 1086-1900 Barton-on-Humber: Workers Education Association, 2005
  • Clapson, Rodney & Stockdale, Darren, Roads, Coaches and Carriers of Barton before 1900, Fathom Writers Press, 2009
  • Evans, E WThe Story of the Hall-Mark, Hall’s Ropery, 1975
  • Fenton, WillRopeworks: A brief history of Hall’s Barton Ropery, Barton-on-Humber: Fathom Press, 2007
  • Holland, John and ValerieImages of England: Barton-upon-Humber, Stroud: Tempus Publishing, 1999
  • Holm, StuartHumber Mill, Barton upon Humber, Lincolnshire History & Archaeology Vol 13, 1978
  • Land, NigelElswick-Hopper of Barton on Humber, Fathom Writers Press, 2010
  • Triplow, NickFamily Ties: Stories from Hall’s Barton Ropery, Fathom Press, 2007
  • White, P R, and Tye, AWaterways & Railways in Barton and New Holland, Industrial Archaeology Group, Lincolnshire Local History Society, c.1970
  • Wilson, C M (Ed), Clapson’s Boatyard, Lincolnshire History & Archaeology, Vol 12, 1976
  • Wright, NeilLincolnshire Towns and Industry 1700-1914, Lincoln: History of Lincolnshire Committee, 1982
  • Wright, Neil, ed., Lincolnshire’s Industrial Heritage, Lincoln: SLHA, 2004


William Blyth's tilery

Humber Bridge

Hall's ropery

BOSTON: Industrial History: Bibliography
Books and other printed sources on the industrial heritage of the town

The population of the Boston in 1801: 5926; 1851: 15132; 1901: 16174

Boston was one of the England’s foremost ports and trading centres – especially for wool – in the Middle Ages, though its importance declined sharply in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.
 
In the late eighteenth century, the town’s fortunes changed for the better. First the fens were drained, enclosed and developed on all side of the town. Inland navigation improved; grain production grew, and the port came back into its own.
 
In this period, banks opened, warehouses were built, and wharves improved. The town moved into the nineteenth century to become an important industrial centre, with iron works, shipyards and feather factories joining wind and water mills.
 
The arrival of the railways nearly destroyed Boston. Almost overnight the port was redundant, trade decimated, until dock improvement halted the slide.

Books and other printed sources

Abbreviations: LHA = Lincolnshire History and Archaeology (SLHA journal); LP&P = Lincolnshire Past & Present (SLHA Magazine); LIA = Lincolnshire Industrial Archaeology (forerunner of LHA, 1966-1973)

Books
  • Lewis, M J T and Wright Neil, Boston as a Port, LIA, 1974
  • Stopper, Mark & Maltby, Roy, Boston Deep Sea Fisheries, Hutton Press, 1995
  • Wright, Neil R, Lincolnshire Towns and Industry: 1700-1914, SLHA, 1982
  • Wright, Neil R, The Railways of Boston, Richard Kay, 1971
  • Wright, Neil R, Boston by Gaslight: A History of the Boston Gas Undertaking since 1825, Richard Kay, 2002
Journal articles and book chapters
  • Almond, John, W H Wheeler, Polymath of Boston, LP&P 88, 2012
  • Almond, John, The Grand Sluice, Boston, LP&P 105, 2016
  • Bennet, Mark, The Industrial Heritage of Boston, LHA 30, 1995
  • Cartwright, Adam & Stephen Walker, Boston: A Railway Town (part 1), KMS Books, 1987
  • Hanson, Martin & Waterfield, James, Boston Windmills, authors, nd 
  • Waterfield, Tom, Maud Foster Windmill, LHA 25, 1990
  • Wheeler, Rob, Boston Harbour Dues, Oats, Coal and the Budget of 1831, LHA 51, 2016
  • Wright, Neil R, Old Warehouses of Boston, LIA Vol 1, No.2, 1966
  • Wright, Neil R, Great Northern Locomotive Depot, Boston, LIA Vol 3, No.4, 1968
  • Wright, Neil R, Cheavins Filters [Boston], LIA Vol 6, No.1, 1971
  • Wright, Neil R, Witham Town, Boston, LIA Vol 6, No.4, 1971
  • Wright, Neil R, The Iron Bridges of Boston, LIA Vol 7, No.1, 1972
  • Wright, Neil R, William Howden and Son, in Redmore, K (Ed), ‘Ploughs, Chaffcutters & Steam Engines’, SLHA, 2007
  • Wright, Neil R, Tuxford and Sons, in Redmore, K (Ed), Ploughs, Chaffcutters & Steam Engines, SLHA, 2007
  • Wright, Neil R, Lincoln’s Warehouse, LHA 12, 1977
  • Wright, Neil R, Tuxford Ironworks at Black Sluice, LHA 23, 1988
  • Wright, Neil R, William Howden & Son, Engineers of Boston, LHA 33, 1998
  • Wright, Neil R, Tuxford and Sons of Boston: A Family Business, LHA 38, 2003
  • Wright, Neil R, Site of a Woad Mill, Tattershall Road, Boston, LHA 39, 2004

Doughty Quay Warehouse, c.1810

Hospital Bridge, by Butterley, 1811

Maud Foster windmill, 1819

BOURNE: Industrial History: Bibliography
Books and other printed sources on the industrial heritage of the town

The population of the town in 1801: 1664; 1851: 3717; 1901: 4361
 
As a market town and administrative centre Bourne serves a large rural area of south Lincolnshire between the larger towns of Grantham, Sleaford, Spalding and Stamford.
 
It has abundant natural springs but does not stand on a navigable river or canal, though it is linked by a substantial drainage channel, the Bourne Eau, to the River Glen and the Fens to the east.
 
Bourne once had railway connections leading to all four points of the compass: north to Sleaford (opened 1872, closed 1956), south to Essendine (1860-1951), east to Spalding (1856-1964) and west to Little Bytham and Saxby (1893-1959).
 
Over the years the town has had the usual range of small industries supporting the local agricultural community and processing some of its products but no substantial industries emerged until the twentieth century when it became a major centre for the production and development of motor racing cars.

Books and other printed sources

Abbreviations: LHA = Lincolnshire History and Archaeology (SLHA journal); LP&P = Lincolnshire Past & Present (SLHA Magazine); LIA = Lincolnshire Industrial Archaeology (forerunner of LHA, 1966-1973)

  • Birkbeck, J D, A History of Bourne, author, 1976
  • McGregor, Michael, Raymond Mays of Bourne, author, 1994
  • Miles, W D, A History of the Drainage of Bourne South Fen and Thurlby Fen, Ingelow Press, 1976
  • Needle, Rex, A Brief History of Bourne, author, 2021
  • Rhodes, John, Bourne to Saxby [Railway], KMS Books, 1989
  • Squires, Stewart & Hollamby, Ken, Building a Railway: Bourne to Saxby, Lincoln Record Society, 2009
  • Wilson, C M, Baldock’s Watermill, Bourne, LHA 16, 1981

Red Hall, adapted as the principal building of the railway station

Cedars Footbridge, Church Lane - cast iron

BRIGG: Industrial History: Bibliography
Books and other printed sources on the industrial heritage of the town

Brigg (known as Glanford Brigg in earlier times) is a small town in what is now North Lincolnshire. It has a long history as market town and administrative centre for this area. 
The population of the town (including Wrawby) in 1801: 1610; 1851: 3132; 1901: 2827
 
The town lies on the Ancholme, a river which was straightened and improved in the early nineteenth century. The major turnpike road from Lincoln to Barton upon Humber ran through the town (1765), and a shorter road was opened to Caistor in the same year.
 
Brigg has not been well served by the railway network. Lines from Lincoln to Grimsby (MSLR, 1848) and Doncaster to Grimsby (MSLR, 1866) only pass within a few miles of the town. The town’s only rail connection is that from Sheffield via Gainsborough to Grimsby and Cleethorpes (MSLR, 1849).
 
The town had no significant industries in the nineteenth century; iron founding and machine making (James Hart, C L Hett, Isaac Spight and Peacock and Binnington - principally agents); brewing (Sergeant) and jam making (Spring) are probably the most notable. One of Lincolnshire’s handful of sugar beet factories was built on the edge of the town in 1928. It closed in 1991 and a gas-powered electricity generating station was built on an adjacent site two years later.
 
Books and other Printed Sources
 
Abbreviations: LHA = Lincolnshire History and Archaeology (SLHA journal); LP&P = Lincolnshire Past & Present (SLHA Magazine); LIA = Lincolnshire Industrial Archaeology (forerunner of LHA, 1966-1973)

  • Brown, Philip, Peacock & Binnington, in Redmore, K, 'Ploughs, Chaffcutters & Steam Engines', SLHA, 2007
  • Downs, Angela, Toll Bar Keeper on the Turnpike [Brigg], LP&P 99, 2015
  • Henthorn, Frank, A History of 19th Century Brigg, Spiegl Press, 1987
  • Lyons, N J L, White’s Mineral Water Factory, Elwes Street, Brigg, LIA Vol 6, No.1, 1971
  • Mouncey, G, Sergeant’s Brewery, Brigg, LIA Vol 4, No.2, 1969
  • Page, Chris, James Hart & Sons, in Redmore, K, ‘Ploughs, Chaffcutters & Steam Engines’, SLHA, 2007
  • Page, Chris, C L Hett, in Redmore, K, ‘Ploughs, Chaffcutters & Steam Engines’, SLHA, 2007
  • Page, Chris, The Products of C L Hett, Ironfounder of Brigg, LIA Vol 7, No.4, 1972 and LIA Vol 8, No.3, 1973
  • Pullen, Stephen, Hair’s Haulage History, LP&P 79, 2010
  • White, P R, Brigg Turnpike Trust in the Early Years, LIA Vol 5, No.1, 1970
  • Wilson, C M (Ed), Sergeant’s Brewery, Brigg, LHA 13, 1978

Sugar Beet Factory

Spring's Lemon Curd Works

GAINSBOROUGH: Industrial History: Bibliography
Books and other printed sources on the industrial heritage of the town

Gainsborough's Population in 1801: 5112, in 1851: 8293; and in 1901: 19,232.
 
Gainsborough lies on the east bank of the River Trent at the limit for most ocean-going vessels sailing inland up the Humber. Many of the town’s industries have been linked to its advantageous position as an inland port. Shipbuilding yards were established on the waterfront and the river trade brought about large-scale milling of cereal grain and oilseed.
 
The town also stands at the lowest bridging point on the Trent. It was served by an east-west turnpike road (Louth to Bawtry) from 1765, a route much improved in 1791 by the building of a bridge over the Trent near the town centre which replaced a ferry.
 
Gainsborough had good railway links at an early date: to Lincoln, as an extension of the ‘Loop Line’ from Peterborough (1849); to Grimsby via Brigg (1849); to Doncaster (1867); and to Retford (1849). It is now the only Lincolnshire town with two railway stations.
 
Many small industries, typical of a market town and river port, grew up in Gainsborough, but it was perhaps the town’s good transport links that enabled the local engineering firm of Marshalls, Sons and Company to become a firm of international significance. Another firm of wide importance was Rose Brothers, pioneer makers of packing machinery for a wide range of products.
 
Books
  • Beckwith, I S, The Industrial Archaeology of Gainsborough, Industrial Archaeology Group, Lincolnshire Local History Society, 1968
  • Beckwith, I S, The History of Transport and Travel in Gainsborough, Gainsborough UDC, 1971
  • Edlington, S & Rose, D, Rose Brothers (Gainsborough) Ltd, authors, 2009
  • Walls, John, Clayton & Shuttleworth & Marshall Aircraft Production, Brayford Press, 1977
Journal articles and book chapters
  • Crabtree, Andrew, Gainsborough Riverside Walk, Lincolnshire Past & Present 48, 2002
  • Dent, Anthony, Marshall Engine in Zimbabwe, Lincolnshire Past & Present 115, 2019
  • Edlington, Susan et al, J & B Edlington, in Redmore, K, (Ed), ‘Ploughs, Chaffcutters & Steam Engines’, SLHA, 2007
  • Robinson, Michael, Lincolnshire-made Machines in the Tea Industry [Marshalls], Lincolnshire Past & Present 106, 2016
  • Squires, Stewart, River Trent Bridge, Gainsborough, Lincolnshire Past & Present 64, 2006
  • Stevenson, Peter, Marshall’s and the Bristol F2B WW2 Fighter, Lincolnshire Past & Present 84, 2011

Gainsborough's waterfront on the Trent, early 20th century

Water tower, Summer Hill, 1898

GRANTHAM: Industrial History: Bibliography
Books and other printed sources on the industrial heritage of the town

Grantham is a large town in the south west of the county. The population of the town in 1801: 4955; 1851: 10840; 1901: 16457. Its position on two major transport routes, the A1 (formerly the Great North Road) and the East Coast Main Railway Line, has been a major factor in its growth and prosperity.
 
The town does not lie on a navigable river – only the Witham in its upper reaches - but the canal to Nottingham, opened in 1797, had a key role to play in the import of coal and other goods.
 
Grantham has been the home of a wide range of small industries typical of an East Midlands town, such as milling, malting, brewing and basket making.
 
A number of iron foundries and engineering companies were established in the town in the nineteenth century, one of which, Richard Hornsby, became very dominant and developed an international market.
 
Among the products of Grantham’s twentieth century industries are armaments, water pumps, cranes, crankshafts, coal cutters and road rollers.

Books and other printed sources

Abbreviations: LHA = Lincolnshire History and Archaeology (SLHA journal); LP&P = Lincolnshire Past & Present (SLHA Magazine); LIA = Lincolnshire Industrial Archaeology (forerunner of LHA, 1966-1973)
 
Books
  • Cove-Smith, Chris, The Grantham Canal Today, Grantham Canal Restoration Society, 1974
  • Honeybone, Michael, The Book of Grantham, Barracuda, 1980
  • Pitman, Tony, The Grantham Canal Guide, The Grantham Canal Society, 2007
  • Pointer, Michael, Hornsbys of Grantham, 1815-1918, Bygone Grantham, 1978
  • Pointer, Michael, Ruston & Hornsbys, Grantham, 1918-1963, Bygone Grantham, 1977
  • Pointer, Michael, The Rise and Fall of Aveling-Barford, 1933-1988, Bygone Grantham, 1997
  • Stephenson, Peter, Grantham: An Industrial Trail, SLHA, 2007
  • Wright, Neil R, Lincolnshire Towns and Industry: 1700-1914, SLHA, 1982
Journal articles and book chapters
  • Birch, Neville, Brownlow’s Carriage Works, Grantham, LIA Vol 6, No.4, 1971
  • Cartwright, Adam, Mowbray and Co Ltd, Brewers of Grantham, LHA 49, 2014
  • Cheetham, A K, Grantham Canal, LIA Vol 3, No.1, 1968
  • Davies, Andrew, Grantham’s Presentation Tank, LP&P 4, 1991
  • Knapp, Malcolm, Bjorlow (Great Britain) Ltd, Tannery, LHA 12, 1976
  • Knapp, Malcolm, Coles Cranes, Dysart Road, LHA 12, 1977
  • Knapp, Malcolm, Dysart Road Railway Bridge, LHA 15, 1980
  • Stevenson, Peter, Wartime Memories [Grantham], LP&P 59, 2005
  • Stephenson, Peter, Sullivans at Grantham, 1936-47, LP&P 44, 2001
  • Wilson, Catherine, James Coultas, in Redmore, K, (Ed), ‘Ploughs, Chaffcutters & Steam Engines’, SLHA, 2007
  • --, The Grantham Navigation [a poem], LP&P 120, 2020

Lee & Grinling's maltings

Grantham Railway Station


GRIMSBY and NORTH EAST LINCOLNSHIRE: Industrial History: Bibliography
Books and other printed sources on the industrial heritage of the town and district

The unitary authority of North East Lincolnshire was created in 1996, centred on Grimsby and including Cleethorpes, Immingham and a small rural hinterland. It was formerly part of Humberside.
 
The population of the Grimsby in 1801: 1524; 1851: 8860; 1901: 36857
 
Grimsby has a long history as a borough and fishing port. It remained a moderately sized community until the advent of the railway in the late 1840s which resulted in a huge investment in the docks, especially for North Sea fishing.
 
Other industries grew alongside the dock development – some, but not all, directly related to the port’s activities. The fishing fleet dwindled to a mere handful of vessels in the 1970s and today virtually no fish are landed at Grimsby, though fish processing remains an important activity. It is an active commercial port.
 
Immingham lies on the Humber estuary about five miles north west of Grimsby. A new deep-water dock was opened here in 1912 by the Great Central Railway and this has been supplemented by jetties to the north and south. Major imports include petrochemicals, coal, iron ore and vehicles.
 
Cleethorpes, for centuries lying within Lindsey though abutting the Borough of Grimsby, has flourished as a seaside resort, especially popular with visitors from south Yorkshire.
 
Books and other printed sources

Abbreviations: LHA = Lincolnshire History and Archaeology (SLHA journal); LP&P = Lincolnshire Past & Present (SLHA Magazine); LIA = Lincolnshire Industrial Archaeology (forerunner of LHA, 1966-1973); LH = Lincolnshire Historian

Books 
  • Chapman, Peter, Grimsby: The Story of the World’s Greatest Fishing Port, Breedon Books, 2002
  • Crossland, Garry, A History of the Grimsby Ice Factory, Great Grimsby Ice Factory Trust, nd
  • Crossland, G J & Turner, C E, Immingham, A History of the Deep-Water Port, T&C Publishing, 2006
  • Gillett, E, Grimsby and the Haven Company, LH No.10, 1952
  • Jackson, Gordon, Grimsby and the Haven Company, Grimsby Public Libraries, 1971
  • Kaye, David, The Book of Grimsby, Barracuda, 1981
  • Ludlam, A J, A Lincolnshire Railway Centre: Grimsby, LRWS, 2016
  • Roberts, D E, The Grimsby Gas Undertaking, 1836-1949, E M Gas, 1983
  • Taylor, Mike, Shipping on the Humber: The South Bank, Tempus, 2003
  • --, The Port of Grimsby & Immingham, ABP, [undated publicity book]
  • --, Official Opening of Immingham Dock, July 22nd, 1912, [souvenir booklet]
Journal articles and book chapters 
  • Birch, Neville, and White, P R, Fowler & Holden (Grimsby) Ltd, LIA Vol,3, No,2, 1968
  • Birch, Neville, Some of Grimsby’s Carriers, LIA Vol 6, Nos.2&3, 1971
  • Everitt, Neil et al, The Grimsby Ice Factory, LP&P 81, 2010
  • Hallett, Gladys C, The Smackbuilders of Grimsby, LP&P 6, 1991
  • Lewis, M J T, Hewitt’s Maltings, Grimsby, LHA 12, 1976
  • Sass, Jon A, Waltham Windmill, LIA Vol 2, No.2, 1967
  • Waddington, H S, Towers and Hydraulic Installations at Grimsby Docks, LHA 15, 1980
  • Waddington, H S, Industrial Archaeology Visit to Humber Ports, LN 60 and 61, 1989
  • White, P R, The Riverhead at Grimsby, LIA Vol 3, No.4, 1968
  • White, P R, An Industrial History of Grimsby and Cleethorpes, LIA, 1970
  • White, P R, The Maltings, Grimsby, LIA Vol 6, No.4, 1971
  • Wilson, John, Grimsby and Butterfly Bombs, LP&P 18, 1994
  • Wright, Neil R, Great Grimsby A Town of Fishermen, LHA 21 1986
  • Wilson, John, Recruiting Immingham, Docks Police 1916, LP&P 22, 1995

Grimsby, Royal Dock, 1912

Immingham Dock, heavy cargo crane, 1926

 

Cleethorpes, the beach, 1912

HORNCASTLE: Industrial History: Bibliography
Books and other printed sources on the industrial heritage of the town

Horncastle is a small market town in the centre of the county, close to the southern edge of the Lincolnshire Wolds.
Population: 1801 - 2015; 1851 - 4921; 1901 - 4038.

Between 1802 and 1889 Horncastle was served by a canal which followed the line of the River Bain southwards through Tattershall to the river Witham.  Stretches of the rivers Bain and Waring in the town were developed as basins for the canal and were lined with warehouses and a range of small industries.

A railway branch line starting at Kirkstead (later re-named Woodhall Junction) on the GNR Lincoln to Boston loop line ran through Woodhall Spa and terminated at Horncastle.  This single line opened in 1855, was closed to passenger traffic in 1954 and finally closed for goods in 1971.

Horncastle’s industries were mainly related to the processing of agricultural produce.  In the nineteenth century there were four windmills and one watermill in the town. Tanning and leather working developed from an early date and became a major industry, to some extent stimulated by the local trading in horses which rose to a peak each year in the famous August horse fair.

Other industries over the 19th and 20th centuries include iron founding and machine making, brick making, seedsmen/nurserymen, paper packaging, printing and sportswear manufacture.

Harrison's warehouse at Horncastle railway station
Grain warehouse, railway station
 
 
Iron foundry in Foundry Street, Horncastle
Iron foundry, Foundry Street

 

Books and other Printed Sources

  • Aikman, A. E., Horncastle’s Old Theatre, Lincolnshire History and Archaeology (LHA) 12 (1977)  
  • Brooks, M, Horncastle Canal Survey, Industrial Archaeology Group, Lincolnshire Local History Society, Vol 1, No 1, 1966
  • Clarke, J. N., The Horncastle and Tattershall Canal, Oakwood Press, 1990  
  • Clarke, J. N., Horncastle Horse Fairs, Lincolnshire Past & Present 55 (2004) 
  • Cussons, E., The Miller of Horncastle, Lincolnshire Life, 1982
  • Hunt, W.M., Horncastle Navigation Engineers, 1792-94, Journal of the Railway and Canal Historical Society (RCHS), March 1979
  • Hunt, W. M., The Lincoln High Bridge Scheme, RCHS Journal, Nov 1991
  • Jones, P., The Ever Confusing Horncastle Canal, RCHS Journal July 2003
  • Lester, C. J. and Redmore, K. Wheelwright’s Tyre Oven, LHA 45 (2010) 
  • Ludlam, A. J. The Horncastle and Woodhall Spa Railway, Oakwood Press, 1986
  • Ludlam, A. J., Branch Lines of East Lincolnshire: Woodhall Junction to Horncastle, LWRS, 2015
  • Redmore, Ken, Horncastle Navigation: Poling Holes, Lincolnshire History & Archaeology, Vol 47, 2012
  • Robinson, D. N., The Book of Horncastle and Woodhall Spa, Barracuda Books, 1983 
  • Robinson, D.N., Double Century: The Story of William Crowder & Sons, Nurserymen, Horncastle 1998
  • Wilson, C. M. and Redmore, K. Whitehaven Farm, Horncastle, LHA 38 (2003)

    Ken Redmore, 2012 & 2022 

LINCOLN ENGINEERS: Industrial History: Bibliography
Books and other printed sources on the history of Lincoln Engineers

Lincoln is a small historic city in a county dominated by the agriculture industry, yet it grew to become a very important centre for engineering.
 
Many of the engineering concerns in the city began in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries as manufacturers of equipment and machinery on a small scale for the county’s farming community.
 
A few of these companies increased their output on a huge scale and established markets across the country and abroad. They also diversified and developed engines, vehicles and machinery for many other industries.
 
Four companies – Clayton & Shuttleworth, Ruston, Robey and William Foster – dominated the engineering industry in Lincoln and are given separate sections in the lists below 
 
Books and other printed sources

Abbreviations: LHA = Lincolnshire History and Archaeology (SLHA journal); LP&P = Lincolnshire Past & Present (SLHA Magazine); LIA = Lincolnshire Industrial Archaeology (forerunner of LHA, 1966-1973); SOL = Survey of Lincoln

GENERAL INFORMATION about engineering in Lincoln
 
Books 
  • Walker, Andrew, Lincoln’s Engineering Industries, A Concise History, c.1780-1980s, SOL, 2021 
  • Wright, Neil R, Lincolnshire Towns and Industry, 1700-1914, SLHA 1982
Journal articles and Book Chapters 
  • Birch, Neville and Page, Chris, Lincoln Firms: A Brief History, LIA Vol 2 No.4, 1967
  • Herridge, John, Industrial Archaeology in Wigford, in Hill, P R (Ed), ‘Wigford: Historic Lincoln South of the River’, SOL, 2000
  • Murray, Neil, Politics and Industry in Late Edwardian Lincoln, in Coggan, Julianne (Ed), ‘Lincolnshire’, Ottakar, 2001
  • Herridge, John, Industry [Monks Road], in Walker, Andrew, ‘Monks Road: Lincoln’s East End through Time, SOL, 2006
  • Hodson, Maurice, New Boultham [industrial area], in Walker, Andrew, ‘Boultham and Swallowbeck: Lincoln’s South-Western Suburbs, SOL, 2013 
  • Hughes, Heather & Kitchen, Tom, Lincoln’s Engineering Heritage, in Walker, Andrew, ‘Lincoln’s Engineering Industries, A Concise History, c.1780-1980s’, SOL, 2021 
  • Page, Chris, Agricultural Machinery Making in Upper Lincoln, in Walker, Andrew, ‘Uphill Lincoln I: Burton Road, Newport and the Ermine Estate, SOL, 2009
  • Page, Chris, Some of Lincoln’s Early Engineering Businesses and Iron Foundries, in Walker, Andrew, ‘Lincoln’s Engineering Industries, A Concise History, c.1780-1980s’, SOL, 2021 
  • Parker, Charles, Aircraft Production in the First World War [Lincoln], in Walker, Andrew, ‘Lincoln’s Engineering Industries, A Concise History, c.1780-1980s’, SOL, 2021 
  • Smith, Colin, Electronic Manufacturer in Lincoln to the 1980s and beyond, in Walker, Andrew, ‘Lincoln’s Engineering Industries, A Concise History, c.1780-1980s’, SOL, 2021 
CLAYTON & SHUTTLEWORTH (including Clayton Wagons, and Smith-Clayton)
  • Basquill, Sara, Was This Nathaniel Clayton’s Apprentice Piece?, LP&P 109, 2017
  • Birch, Neville, Clayton & Shuttleworth: An Early Success, LP&P 50, 2003
  • Moore, Nick, Who Were Hofherr-Schrantz-Clayton-Shuttleworth?, LP&P 115, 2019
  • Muir, Augustus, 75 Years a Record of Progress: Smith’s Stamping Works, Coventry & Smith-Clayton Forge Lincoln, Smith’s Stamping Works, 1958
  • Smith, Miriam, The Growth and Decline of the Manufacturing Firm of Clayton & Shuttleworth, in Walker, Andrew (Ed), ‘South-East Lincoln: Canwick Road, South Common, St Catherine’s and Bracebridge, SOL, 2011
  • Wheeler, Rob, The Rise of Clayton & Shuttleworth, LHA 47, 2012
  • Wheeler, Rob, Decline and Fall of Clayton & Shuttleworth, LP&P 89, 2012, LP&P 90, 2013
  • Wheeler, Rob, The Rise and Fall of Clayton & Shuttleworth, in Walker, Andrew, ‘Lincoln’s Engineering Industries, A Concise History, c.1780-1980s’, SOL, 2021 
  • Williams, John, The Shuttleworth Family and the Collection, LP&P 52, 2003
  • Wilson, C M (Ed), Stamp End Ironworks, LHA 18, 1983
WILLIAM FOSTER (including Foster-Gwynne) 
  • Lane, Michael R, The Story of the Wellington Foundry, Lincoln, Unicorn Press, 1997
  • Clipson, E, Loam Moulding at Foster-Gwynnes, Lincoln, LIA Vol 5, No.2, 1970
  • Lester, Chris, Gwynne’s Pumps at Wiggenhall St German, LP&P 83, 2011
  • Walker, Andrew, William Foster & Company, in Walker, Andrew, ‘Lincoln’s Engineering Industries, A Concise History, c.1780-1980s’, SOL, 2021 
ROBEY 
  • Southworth, P J M, Some Early Robey Steam Engines, the author, 2014
  • Birch, Neville, Robey’s Military Aircraft, LIA Vol 8, No.2, 1973
  • Cartwright, Adam, Robey & Company, in Walker, Andrew, (Ed), ‘Lincoln’s Engineering Industries, A Concise History, c.1780-1980s’, SOL, 2021 
  • Johnson, Chris, Canwick Road and Robeys, in Walker, Andrew (Ed), ‘South-East Lincoln: Canwick Road, South Common, St Catherine’s and Bracebridge, SOL, 2011
  • Stevenson, Peter, Jodrell Bank Telescope and Robey’s, LP&P 89, 2012
RUSTON (including Ruston, Proctor & Co; Ruston & Hornsby; Ruston Bucyrus, Ruston Gas Turbines)

Books 
  • Grange, Wilson, Over 50 Years of Achievement: A Celebration of Gas Turbines in Lincoln, European Gas Turbines, 1998
  • Hall, David R, A Guide to Ruston Narrow-Gauge Locomotives, Moseley Railway Trust, 2003
  • Hall, David R, The Ruston Class 48DS & 88DS Locomotives, Moseley Railway Trust, 1999
  • Neale, Andrew, Ruston & Hornsby Diesel Locomotive Album, Plateway Press, 2014
  • Newman, Bernard, 100 Years of Good Company, Ruston & Hornsby, 1957
  • Robinson, Peter, Lincoln’s Excavators: The Ruston Years, 1875-1930, Roundoak Publishing, 2003
  • Robinson, Peter, Lincoln’s Excavators: The Ruston-Bucyrus Years, 1930-1945, Roundoak Publishing, 2006
  • Robinson, Peter, Lincoln’s Excavators: The Ruston-Bucyrus Years, 1945-1970, Roundoak Publishing, 2010
  • Tonks. Eric S, Ruston & Hornsby Locomotives, Industrial Railway Society, 1974
Journal articles and book chapters 
  • Basquill, Sara, The Ruston Proctor ZLH Locomotive, LP&P 106, 2016
  • Basquill, Sara, Rescuing a Damsel in Distress [Ruston, Proctor engine], LP&P 121, 2020
  • Betteridge, Stephen J, Ruston Proctor Boiler Works, Firth Road, LHA 20, 1985
  • Broughton, Derek, He’s Gone to the Foundry [Rustons, Ruston-Bucyrus], in Walker, Andrew, ‘Boultham and Swallowbeck: Lincoln’s South-Western Suburbs, SOL, 2013 
  • Broughton, Derek, The Decline and Fall of Ruston Bucyrus: A Personal Reflection, in Walker, Andrew, ‘Lincoln’s Engineering Industries, A Concise History, c.1780-1980s’, SOL, 2021 
  • Clarke, Lesley, From Ruston, Burton & Proctor to Ruston, Proctor & Co Ltd, 1857-1900, in Walker, Andrew, (Ed), ‘Lincoln’s Engineering Industries, A Concise History, c.1780-1980s’, SOL, 2021 
  • Finch, Jon, The Rustons Extravaganza, LP&P 43 2001 
  • Hooley, Ray, The Ruston Story, in Coggan, Julianne (Ed), Lincolnshire, Ottakar, 2001
  • Hunt, Abigail, Ruston’s c.1900-1945: Planes, Trains and Automobiles, in Walker, Andrew, ‘Lincoln’s Engineering Industries, A Concise History, c.1780-1980s’, SOL, 2021 
  • Redmore, Ken & Broughton, Derek, A Day out for RB Workers, LP&P 124, 2021
  • Robinson, Michael, Lincolnshire-made Machines in the Tea Industry [Rustons], LP&P 106, 2016
  • Stevenson, Peter, Ruston-Bucyrus Export Sales Conference, LP&P 98, 2015
  • Stevenson, Peter, Fenland Draglines [Ruston Bucyrus], LP&P 74, 2009
  • Turner, John, A Ruston & Hornsby Shale Planer, LHA 23 1988
OTHER ENGINEERS, machine makers and iron founders (in alphabetical order) 
  • Porter, John, Charles BARNES’ Patents for the Internal Combustion Engine, LP&P 59, 2005
  • Bailey, Michael, William BILLINGSLEY & Henry BANKS, LP&P 32, 1998
  • Biddlecombe, Julie, Steam Engine Builder, W H CHESTER [Lincoln], LP&P 36, 1999
  • Lester, Chris, W H CHESTER, Steam Engine Builder, Lincoln, LP&P 2, 1990
  • Salway, J E, Steam Engine Builder, W H CHESTER [Lincoln], LP&P 35, 1999
  • Walker, Andrew, CLARKE’s Crank and Forge Works, in Walker, Andrew, ‘Lincoln’s Engineering Industries, A Concise History, c.1780-1980s’, SOL, 2021 
  • Cooke, Hugh, John COOKE & Sons, in Walker, Andrew, ‘Lincoln’s Engineering Industries, A Concise History, c.1780-1980s’, SOL, 2021 
  • Cooke, Hugh, John COOKE & Sons of Lincoln, in Redmore, Ken, (Ed), 'Ploughs, Chaff Cutters and Steam Engines, SLHA, 2007 
  • Redmore, Ken, HARRISON & Co (Lincoln): The Malleable Iron Works, in Walker, Andrew, ‘Lincoln’s Engineering Industries, A Concise History, c.1780-1980s’, SOL, 2021 
  • Yeates-Langley, Ann, HARRISON’s Malleable Iron Works, in Walker, Andrew (Ed), ‘Brayford Pool: Lincoln’s Waterfront through Time’, SOL, 2012
  • Page, Chris, A History of Michael PENISTAN Junior, Agricultural Engineer, Lincoln, LHA 49, 2014
  • Gravells, M A, PENNEY and PORTER Limited, in Coggan, Julianne (Ed), Lincolnshire, Ottakar, 2001
  • Moore, Nicholas, John Thomas Brown PORTER and the Gowts Bridge Foundry, in Walker, Andrew, ‘Lincoln’s Engineering Industries, A Concise History, c.1780-1980s’, SOL, 2021 
  • Cartwright, Adam, RAINFORTHS of Lincoln, LHA 45, 2010
  • Cartwright, Adam, RAINFORTHS of Lincoln: A Postscript, LP&P 102, 2015
  • Cartwright, Adam, W RAINFORTH & Sons, in Walker, Andrew, ‘Lincoln’s Engineering Industries, A Concise History, c.1780-1980s’, SOL, 2021 
  • Page, Chris, Thomas SAWDON, Machine Maker and Sawdon’s Yard, in Walker, Andrew (Ed), ‘Brayford Pool: Lincoln’s Waterfront through Time’, SOL, 2012
  • Moore, Nicholas, Benjamin TAPLIN, Joseph Lee and the Patent Crank and Traction Engine Works, in Walker, Andrew, ‘Lincoln’s Engineering Industries, A Concise History, c.1780-1980s’, SOL, 2021

Ruston, Proctor & Co, badge

Clayton & Shuttleworth, traction engine

Robey diesel engine, Papplewick Pumping Station

Foster-Gwynne pump, Wiggenhall St German

Ruston-Bucyrus, excavator, Beamish Museum

LINCOLN - OTHER INDUSTRIES: Bibliography
Books and other printed sources on the history of Lincoln's industries other than engineering

Topics covered in this section:
Railways and Transport;
Defence and Wartime;
Milling, Malting and Brewing;
Roads. Bridges & Vehicles,
Brayford Pool & River Witham,
Miscellaneous (Brickmaking, Drainage & Sewerage, Food & Drink, Gas, Electricity & Water Supply)
 
Lincoln is linked to the Trent by the Fossdyke, a canal dating from the Roman period, and to the Wash via Boston by the River Witham.
 
The first railway to Lincoln was laid by the Midland Railway from Newark in 1846, soon followed by the ‘Loop Line’ from Boston to Gainsborough and beyond (1848). Other lines followed to Grimsby (1848), Grantham (1867), Sleaford (1882) and Chesterfield (1896).
 
The city has been dominated by its engineering companies, and other industries, mostly linked to agriculture, have been relatively minor. These include flour and oil milling, fertiliser manufacture, and canvas and tarpaulin making.
 
Books and other printed sources

Abbreviations: LHA = Lincolnshire History and Archaeology (SLHA journal); LP&P = Lincolnshire Past & Present (SLHA Magazine); LIA = Lincolnshire Industrial Archaeology (forerunner of LHA, 1966-1973); SOL = Survey of Lincoln
 
Book
  • Wright, Neil R, Lincolnshire Towns and Industry: 1700-1914, SLHA, 1982
RAILWAYS
  • Ashberry, Jez, Great Central Warehouse, Lincoln, LP&P 62, 2006
  • Barton, B M J, Stamp End Railway Bridge, Lincoln, LHA 33, 1998
  • Betteridge, Stephen J, Lincoln Railways (St Mark’s Station Closure), LHA 20, 1985
  • Birch, Neville, 150 Years of Railways in Lincoln, LP&P 25, 1996 
  • Birch, Neville, Railway Crossings [Lincoln], in Hill, P R (Ed), Wigford: Historic Lincoln South of the River, SOL, 2000
  • Cartwright, Adam, The Arrival of the Railways, in Walker, Andrew (Ed), ‘George Boole’s Lincoln, 1815-49’, SOL, 2019
  • Chambers, J I, St Mark’s Station, Lincoln: An Architectural Comment, LIA Vol 7, No. 1, 1972
  • Cossey, Frank, Lincoln’s G N R Station, LIA Vol 2, No.1, 1967 and Vol 2, No.3, 1967
  • George, Beryl, The Folly of our Forefathers: The High Street Level Crossings, in Walker, Andrew, ‘Lincoln’s City Centre South of the River Witham, SOL, 2016
  • Hodson, Maurice, High Street to Bracebridge for One Penny: Lincoln’s Trams, in Walker, Andrew (Ed), ‘South-East Lincoln: Canwick Road, South Common, St Catherine’s and Bracebridge, SOL, 2011
  • Ludlam, A J, A Lincolnshire Railway Centre: Lincoln, Lincolnshire Wolds Railway Society, 2017
  • Page, Chris, Boultham Sidings [Lincoln], in Walker, Andrew (Ed), ‘Birchwood, Hartsholme and Swanpool, Lincoln’s Outer South-Western Suburbs, SOL, 2014
  • Page, Chris, The Railway between Lincoln and Saxilby, LIA Vol 5, No.1, 1970
  • Raines, David and Sleaford U3A Group, Railway Footbridges, South Common, Lincoln, LHA 39, 2004
  • Ruddock, J G & Pearson, R E, The Railway History of Lincoln, Ruddock, 1974 & 1985
  • Squires, Stewart, Railways of the South-Western Suburbs, in Walker, Andrew (Ed), ‘Birchwood, Hartsholme and Swanpool, Lincoln’s Outer South-Western Suburbs, SOL, 2014
  • Squires, Stewart, The Lincoln to Grantham Railway, in Walker, Andrew (Ed), ‘South-East Lincoln: Canwick Road, South Common, St Catherine’s and Bracebridge, SOL, 2011
  • Wall, Tony, Stone Sleepers at St Mark’s Station, Lincoln, LHA 19, 1984
  • Wheeler, Rob, St Mark’s Station [Lincoln], in Walker, Andrew, ‘Lincoln’s City Centre South of the River Witham, SOL, 2016
DEFENCE & WARTIME
  • Bailey, Adrian, Robey’s and RAF Fylingdale, LP&P 90, 2013
  • Basquill, Sara, First World War Tank in Museum [Lincoln], LP&P 101, 2015
  • Carle, Annabel, Sir William Tritton and the Tank, LP&P 61, 2005
  • Evans, Gwyn, A Reappraisal of Lincoln Tank Production in 1916, LHA 50, 2015
  • Gray, Adrian, The Birth of the Tank, in Gray, Adrian, ‘Lincolnshire Headlines’, Countryside Books, 1993
  • Hubbard-Hall, Claire, Lincoln Drill Hall, in Walker, Andrew, ‘Lincoln’s City Centre: North of the Witham, SL, 2015
  • Huggins, Rhona, Comment on Turner, John T, ‘Nellie’: The History of Churchill’s Lincoln-Built Trenching Machine, NL 60, 1989
  • Osborne, Mike, First World War Searchlight Position, Lincoln, LHA 41, 2006
  • Pullen, Richard, The Landships of Lincoln, Tucann, 2003
  • Squires, Stewart, Women Munition Workers in Lincoln, LP&P 111, 2018
  • Turner, John T, ‘Nellie’: The History of Churchill’s Lincoln-Built Trenching Machine, (Book) SLHA, 1988 
  • Walker, Andrew, The Barracks [Burton Road], in Walker, Andrew, ‘Uphill Lincoln I: Burton Road, Newport and the Ermine Estate, SOL, 2009
  • Walker, Andrew, The Fourth Northern General Hospital, in Walker, Andrew, ‘Uphill Lincoln II: The North-Eastern Suburbs’, SOL, 2010
  • Walls, John, Clayton & Shuttleworth & Marshall Aircraft Production, Brayford Press, 1977
  • Walls, J & Parker, C, Aircraft Made in Lincoln, (Book) SLHA, 2000
  • Yeates-Langley, Ann, Women Munition Workers in Lincoln during the First World War, LHA 49, 2014
  • Yeates-Langley, Ann, Female Munition Workers in Lincoln, LP&P 100, 2015
  • Yeates-Langley, Ann, The West Common at War: Number Four Acceptance Park, in Andrew (Ed), ‘Lincoln’s West End’, SOL, 2008
  • --, Generators in a WW2 Air Raid Shelter, LP&P 74, 2009
  • --, The Birth of the Tank, LP&P 101, 2015
MILLING, MALTING AND BREWING
  • Barlow, Tony, Maltings on Brayford Wharf North, LHA 19 1984
  • Cartwright, Adam, Lincoln’s Maltings, in Walker, Andrew (Ed), ‘Pubs in Lincoln: A History. The City’s Inns, Public Houses, Beerhouses, Breweries and Maltings’, SOL, 2017
  • Chambers, J I, & Wilson, C M, Dickinson’s Mill, Lincoln, LIA Vol 7, No. 2, 1972
  • Frankish, W H, My Reminiscences of Albion Mills, Brayford, LIA Vol 8, No3, 1973
  • Hodson, Maurice, Dawber’s Brewing and Public House Operations in Lincoln, Waterside South, in Andrew (Ed), ‘Pubs in Lincoln: A History. The City’s Inns, Public Houses, Beerhouses, Breweries and Maltings’, SOL, 2017
  • Hodson, Maurice, Dawber’s Brewery, in Andrew (Ed), ‘Lincoln’s West End’, SL, 2008
  • Osborne, Les, Ellis’s Mill, in Walker, Andrew, ‘Uphill Lincoln I: Burton Road, Newport and the Ermine Estate’, SOL, 2009
  • Page, Chris, Mills in the Parish of St Peter-at-Gowts, in Walker, Andrew, ‘Lincoln’s City Centre South of the River Witham’, SL, 2016
  • Page, Chris, Drury Lane Brewery, in Walker, Andrew (Ed), ‘Lincoln’s Castle, Bail and Close’, SOL, 2015
  • Page, Chris, The Rudgard Family and the Crown Brewery, Waterside South, in Andrew (Ed), ‘Pubs in Lincoln: A History. The City’s Inns, Public Houses, Beerhouses, Breweries and Maltings’, SOL, 2017
  • Tinley, Ruth, Le Tall’s Mill, Lincoln, NL 46, 1985
  • Tinley, Ruth, Crown Mill, Lincoln, LP&P 36, 1999
  • Walker, Andrew (Ed), ‘Pubs in Lincoln: A History. The City’s Inns, Public Houses, Beerhouses, Breweries and Maltings’, (Book) SOL, 2017
ROADS, BRIDGES and VEHICLES
  • Basquill, Sara, Objects of Life: The Lincoln Elk [motorcycle], LP&P 122, 2020
  • Birch, Neville (Ed), Lincoln’s Bridges: A Survey, LIA Vol 4, No.1, 1969
  • Bower, David, Lost Roads of Lincoln, LP&P 83, 2011
  • Brooks, Gordon, Motor Car Manufacturers of Lincolnshire: 2. Lincoln Motor Cars, LIA Vol 5, No.4, 1970
  • Carle, Annabel, Lincoln Motor Manufacturing Company, LP&P 73, 2008
  • Carle, Annabel et al, The Story of FE1, First Registration Number, LP&P 75, 2009
  • Carle, Annabel et al, From Penny Farthing to Daimler, LP&P 76, 2009
  • Carle, Annabel et al, Gilbert & Son and Richardson, LP&P 78, 2010
  • Hodson, Maurice, Four Bridges and Sincil Dyke, in Walker, Andrew, ‘Lincoln’s City Centre South of the River Witham, SOL, 2016
  • Lewis, Michael, Thoughts on the Roman Bridge at Lincoln, LHA 47, 2012
  • Page, Chris, The High Bridge, in Walker, Andrew, ‘Lincoln’s City Centre: North of the Witham’, SOL, 2015
  • Squires, Stewart, Bridges in the Neighbourhood [South-East Lincoln], in Walker, Andrew (Ed), ‘South-East Lincoln: Canwick Road, South Common, St Catherine’s and Bracebridge’, SOL, 2011
  • Squires, Stewart, The Brayford Bridges, in Walker, Andrew (Ed), ‘Brayford Pool: Lincoln’s Waterfront through Time’, SOL, 2012
BRAYFORD POOL & RIVER WITHAM
  • Hodson, Maurice, Four Bridges and Sincil Dyke, in Walker, Andrew, ‘Lincoln’s City Centre South of the River Witham, SOL, 2016
  • Mills, Dennis, Brayford Pool and George Giles’ Sanitary Report of 1849, in Walker, Andrew (Ed), ‘Brayford Pool: Lincoln’s Waterfront through Time’, SOL, 2012
  • Walker, Andrew, Trade and Industry on Brayford Pool, c.1850-1980, in Walker, Andrew (Ed), ‘Brayford Pool: Lincoln’s Waterfront through Time’, SOL, 2012
  • Wheeler, Rob, A Tunnel and a Tankard Valve, in Walker, Andrew, ‘Boultham and Swallowbeck: Lincoln’s South-Western Suburbs’, SOL, 2013 
  • Wheeler, Rob, Great Gowts – A Forgotten Ford, in Walker, Andrew, ‘Lincoln’s City Centre South of the River Witham’, SOL, 2016
  • Walker, Andrew, Boats on Brayford Pool in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries, in Walker, Andrew (Ed), ‘Brayford Pool: Lincoln’s Waterfront through Time’, SOL, 2012
  • Wheeler, Rob, Drainage and Brayford Pool, in Walker, Andrew (Ed), ‘Brayford Pool: Lincoln’s Waterfront through Time’, SOL, 2012
  • Wilson, C M (Ed), Stamp End Lock Footbridge, LHA 12, 1976
  • --, Lincoln’s Waterways: Trail 1, Lincolnshire Educational Aids Project, 1983
  • --, Lincoln’s Waterways: Trail 2, Lincolnshire Educational Aids Project, 1983-84
MISCELLANEOUS

Brickmaking and Minerals
  • Redmore, Ken, Brickmaking in the West End of Lincoln, in Andrew (Ed), ‘Lincoln’s West End’, SOL, 2008
  • Squires, Stewart, Cross O’Cliff Brickworks, Lincoln, LHA 27, 1992
  • Squires, Stewart, Brickworks at Cross O’Cliff Hill, Lincoln, LP&P 97, 2014
  • Tann, Geoff, Sand and Gravel Extraction, in Walker, Andrew (Ed), ‘Birchwood, Hartsholme and Swanpool, Lincoln’s Outer South-Western Suburbs’, SOL, 2014
Drainage & Sewerage
  • George, Beryl, Lincoln, Sewerage and Government Inspectors, LHA 46, 2011
  • Hickman, Paul, Some Nineteenth-Century Wigford Nuisances, in Walker, Andrew, ‘Lincoln’s City Centre South of the River Witham, SOL, 2016
  • Mills, Dennis R, Effluence and Influence: Public Health, Sewers and Politics in Lincoln, 1848-50, (Book)SLHA, 2015
  • Wheeler, Rob, Drainage in the Neighbourhood [South-East Lincoln]; the Importance of Sincil Dyke, in Walker, Andrew (Ed), ‘South-East Lincoln: Canwick Road, South Common, St Catherine’s and Bracebridge’, SOL, 2011
  • Wheeler, Rob, Drainage and Brayford Pool, in Walker, Andrew (Ed), ‘Brayford Pool: Lincoln’s Waterfront through Time’, SOL, 2012
Food & Drink
  • Hickman, Paul, Soft Drink Manufacturing in the Neighbourhood [Lincoln City Centre], in Walker, Andrew, ‘Lincoln’s City Centre: North of the Witham, SOL, 2015
  • Tann, Geoff, Walker’s Snack Food / Smith’s Crisps Factory, in Walker, Andrew (Ed), ‘South-East Lincoln: Canwick Road, South Common, St Catherine’s and Bracebridge’, SOL, 2011
Gas, Electricity and Water Supply
  • Bremner Smith, C & Page C, Lincoln’s Public Undertakings, LIA Vol 2, No.3, 1967
  • Clark, A, The Lincoln Gas Light and Coke Company, LIA Vol 4, No.3, 1969
  • Jones, Michael J, The Well at St Paul in the Bail, in Walker, Andrew (Ed), ‘Lincoln’s Castle, Bail and Close’, SOL, 2015
  • Lester, Chris, Lincoln Corporation Electricity Works, in Walker, Andrew (Ed), ‘Brayford Pool: Lincoln’s Waterfront through Time’, SOL, 2012
  • Page, C J, The Early History of Electrical Power in Lincoln, LIA Vol 6, Nos.2&3, 1971
  • Redmore, Ken, Bracebridge Gasworks Event, 1938, LP&P 89, 202
  • Redmore, Ken, World War 1 and Lincoln Gasworks, LP&P 103, 2016
  • Redmore, Ken, Bracebridge Gasworks, in Walker, Andrew (Ed), ‘South-East Lincoln: Canwick Road, South Common, St Catherine’s and Bracebridge, SOL, 2011
  • Roberts, D E, The Lincoln Gas Undertaking, 1828-1949, E M Gas, 1981
  • Smith, Joan, Chaos to Beauty: Lincoln Gasworks Garden, LP&P 88, 2012
  • Willington, D J, Lincoln City Waterworks & Henry Teague, LP&P 30, 1997
  • --, Boultham Waterworks, Sincil Drain [photos], LP&P 92, 2013
Other
  • Craven, E, Lincoln Shipwrights, LIA Vol 8, No.3, 1973
  • Duckering, Mark, The History of Elpeeko Limited [printers], Elpeeko Ltd, 2015
  • Hodson, Maurice, The West End Depot, in Andrew (Ed), ‘Lincoln’s West End’, SOL, 2008
  • Johnson, C P C, Tanning Your Hide [Tanneries, Lincoln], in Hill, P R (Ed), Wigford: Historic Lincoln South of the River, SOL, 2000
  • Page, Chris, Beet Root Distillery in Lincoln, LP&P 77, 2009
  • Tinley, Ruth, Lincoln Corn Exchange, in Walker, Andrew, ‘Lincoln’s City Centre South of the River Witham’, SOL, 2016
  • Walker, Andrew, The Cattle Market, 1846-1914, in Walker, Andrew, ‘Monks Road: Lincoln’s East End through Time’, SOL, 2006
  • Wilson, C M (Ed), Fison’s Limited, Carholme Road, Lincoln, LHA 12, 1976

Le Tall's Crown Mill 

Pyewipe Pumping Station, c.1930

Lincoln Power Station, 1955 photo

Lincoln Central (GNR) Station, 1848

Stamp End Railway Bridge, 1847 

Walker's Crisps factory, 1938

LOUTH: Industrial History: Bibliography
Books and other printed sources on the industrial heritage of the town

LOUTH, one of the larger market towns in the county, is on the edge of the Lincolnshire Wolds and ten miles from the coast.
Population: 1801 - 4326; 1851 – 10,467; 1901 – 9518; 2001 – 15,930.

In the late eighteenth century the town was well served by turnpike roads in all directions: to Boston via Spilsby (opened in 1765, the modern A16), Gainsborough via Market Rasen (1765, A631), Horncastle (1770, A153), Saltfleet (1779, B1200), Lincoln via Wragby (1780, A157) and Grimsby (1803, A16).

The Louth Navigation, following the river Lud from the town to Tetney Haven, opened in 1770 and ceased to operate in 1924.  It had 8 locks and was used by keels and sloops trading principally with Hull, Grimsby and other east coast ports. 

The East Lincolnshire Railway opened in 1848 linking Grimsby via Louth to Boston, Peterborough and Kings Cross.  The line closed, post-Beeching, in 1970 except for a freight link between Louth and Grimsby which operated for a further 10 years.  The Mablethorpe loop line (1877-1970) ran east from the town and re-joined the ELR at Willoughby.  The line through the Wolds to Bardney opened in 1876 and closed in 1951 (passengers) and 1956 (freight).

The principal industries of the town have been linked to the processing of agricultural produce: milling (both water- and windmills), malting and brewing; tanning and leather making.  Woollen cloth was made from early medieval times and there was a substantial factory making flat weave carpets in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.  One of the watermills was the site of paper making from c1790-1840.

Burning lime and firing bricks were important activities at one time.  As with other Lincolnshire towns Louth had several iron founders and implement makers throughout the Victorian period and into the twentieth century; there was also an important millwright.  Twentieth century industries include polythene sheet extrusion and fabrication.

Books and other Printed Sources 

  • Betteridge, S JThe Maltings, Northgate, Louth, in Lincolnshire History and Archaeology 20 (1985)
  • Beckwith, Ian (Ed), The Louth Riverhead, Louth WEA, 1976
  • Goode, C TThe Railways of North Lincolnshire, the author, 1985
  • Herbert, W B & Ludlam, A JThe Louth to Bardney Branch, Oakwood Press, 1984
  • Ludlam, A JThe Louth, Mablethorpe and Willoughby Loop, Oakwood Press, 1987
  • Ludlam, A JThe East Lincolnshire Railway, Oakwood Press, 1991
  • Ludlam, A JLouth: A Lincolnshire Railway Centre, LWRS, 2014
  • Ludlam, A JBranch Lines of East Lincolnshire: Louth to Bardney, LWRS, 2015
  • Lyons, N J LLouth Navigation Act of 1828, Industrial Archaeology Group, Lincolnshire Local History Society, Vol 4, No.1, 1969
  • Merriman, T EThe Louth, Mablethorpe & Sutton Building Society, in Lincolnshire Past& Present 49 (2002)
  • Page, C JBeet Root Distillery in Louth, Lincolnshire Past & Present 76 (2009)
  • Redmore, Ken & George, BerylUnusual Building in Louth: F M Thompson, Coachbuilders, LP&P 106, 2016
  • Robinson, D NThe Book of Louth, Barracuda Books, 1979
  • Robinson, D NAdam Eve and Louth Carpets, Louth Naturalists’, Antiquarian and Literary Society, 2010
  • Sass, Jon A, Saundersons: Millwrights & Engineers of Louth, The Mills Archive, 2017
  • Sizer, S MLouth Navigation: A History (1756-1926), Louth Navigation Trust, 1999
  • Sizer, S M et alLouth Industrial Trail, Louth Teachers’ Centre, 1977
  • Sizer, S MThe Shipbuilders of Louth, Louth Navigation Trust, 2020
  • Waddington, H SLouth Navigation, Lincolnshire History and Archaeology 21 (1986) 


Julian's Watermill, 1755

Tollhouse, Horncastle Road, c.1770

Louth Railway Station, 1854

 

SCUNTHORPE: Industrial History: Bibliography
Books and other printed sources on the industrial heritage of the town


Like Arnold Bennett’s Stoke, modern Scunthorpe comprises five villages: Ashby, Brumby, Crosby, Frodingham and Scunthorpe. Scunthorpe, or Skuma’s Thorpe, was once a secondary settlement of the Parish of Frodingham.

In 1851 the total population of the five agricultural settlements was 1,245 and there was little to choose between them. They were geologically fortunate, for they developed over the Jurassic Frodingham ironstone.

The first mention of iron ore was in 1859 by the landowner Charles Winn. His son Roland recognised the economic importance of the ore and started mining it in 1860.

Until the first iron works in Scunthorpe was fired in 1864 the ore was shipped to Yorkshire for smelting. In the succeeding century the industry developed and adapted as steel technology progressed and today it is a major processing site for Corus the Anglo-Dutch steel company.

As new plants were built the old ones were demolished but the Anchor Works built in the 1970s can be seen from the public road, and rails tours of the complex can be booked.

A survivor from the early days is Roland Winn’s planned settlement built in 1865-1870 at New Frodingham; although his workers preferred Scunthorpe, half a mile to the north.

Books and other Printed Sources

  • Armstrong, M. Elizabeth, An Industrial Island: A History of Scunthorpe, Scunthorpe: Scunthorpe Museum and Art Gallery, 1981 
  • Cameron, Kenneth, A Dictionary of Lincolnshire Place-Names, Nottingham: English Place-Name Society, 1998 
  • Creed, Rupert and Coult, Averal, Steeltown, Beverley: Hutton Press, 1990 
  • Dudley, Harold E., Village Days, Scunthorpe: Scunthorpe Museum and Art Gallery (Revised Edition. 1973) 
  • Holm, Stuart, The Heavens Reflect Our Labours, Scunthorpe: Scunthorpe Museum and Art Gallery, 1974 
  • Knell, Simon J., The Natural History of the Frodingham Ironstone,
  • Scunthorpe: Scunthorpe Museum and Art Gallery, 1988 
  • Upton, M J GThe Appleby Ironstone Mine, Industrial Archaeology Group of Lincolnshire Local History Society, Vol 6, No.4, 1971
  • Walshaw, G.R. and Behrendt, C.A.J., The History of Appleby-Frodingham, Scunthorpe: Appleby-Frodingham Steel Co., 1950  
  • Wright, Neil, ed., Lincolnshire’s Industrial Heritage – A Guide, SLHA, 2004

Blast furnaces

Steel making

SLEAFORD: Industrial History: Bibliography
Books and other printed sources on the industrial heritage of the town

The origin of Sleaford’s wealth is agriculture, but it also had a significant industrial past. Its population in 1801 was 1596; in 1851: 3372; and in 1901: 3934.
 
Turnpike roads in 1756 linked the town north to Lincoln, south to Bourne and east to Boston. There was a later turnpike (1793) to Tattershall and a bridge over the Witham. The Sleaford Canal or Navigation from the town centre to the Witham was opened in 1794.
 
Sleaford became a relatively important railway ‘hub’ – and remains so – with lines radiating to Lincoln (1882), Boston (1859), Spalding (1882), Bourne (1872) and Grantham (1857). Only the Bourne line has closed (1964).
 
The town once supported a range of iron founders, machine makers, millers, coach builders – very much like other Lincolnshire towns. One firm grew to an exceptional size: Charles Sharpe & Co, seed merchants, with a substantial international trade.
 
The outstanding industrial monument in Sleaford is the Bass Maltings, completed in 1905.
 
Books and other printed sources

Abbreviations: LHA = Lincolnshire History and Archaeology (SLHA journal); LP&P = Lincolnshire Past & Present (SLHA Magazine); LIA = Lincolnshire Industrial Archaeology (forerunner of LHA, 1966-1973)

  • Atkin, Wendy, Navigation Yard Warehouse, Sleaford, LP&P 33, 1998
  • Dale, John et al, Ward & Dale, A History of the Sleaford Cultivators, Steam Plough Club, 2014 
  • Gostick, LesZeppelin Raid [Sleaford], LP&P 39, 2000
  • Lester, Chris, Navigation House, Sleaford, LP&P 3, 1991
  • Ogden, Nigel, Charles Sharpe and Co Ltd, Sleaford Museum Trust, 2017
  • Page, C J, An Industrial History of Sleaford, LIA, 1968
  • Pawley, Simon, Sleaford and the Slea, G M Griffin, 1990
  • Pawley, Simon, Grist to the Mill (Early mills in Sleaford), LHA 23 1988
  • Pawley, Simon, Sleaford Drainage and Public Health, LP&P 7, 1992
  • Pawley, Simon, Boston Road PoW Camp [Sleaford], LP&P 106, 2016
  • Pawley, Simon & Turland, Michael, Sleaford Navigation Portal, LP&P 120, 2020 & LP&P 121, 2020
  • Smith, Paul, Charles Sharp & Co Ltd, The Firm that Grew Success, LP&P 120, 2020
  • Turland, Michael, Improvements to Sleaford in the 1830s, LP&P 57, 2004
  • Turland, Michael, Sleaford to Ruskington Railway, LP&P 64, 2006
  • Wilson, C M (Ed), Bass Maltings, Sleaford, LHA 12, 1976
  • Woodford, L W, The Founding of the Sleaford Gas Light Company, LIA Vol 1, No.4, 1966

Bass Maltings

Navigation House

Sharpe's seed warehouse

SPALDING: Industrial History: Bibliography
Books and other printed sources on the industrial heritage of the town

The population of Spalding in 1801: 3296; 1851: 8829; 1901: 9381
 
Spalding holds a commanding position in the Fens of south-east Lincolnshire. Situated on the navigable River Welland, it was an important inland port from an early date, serving a large and productive agricultural area.
 
Roads and railways radiated from the town in modern times. The East Lincolnshire Railway (1848-1970), between Peterborough and Grimsby, ran through the town, and it also lay on the important east-west route – both road and rail - between the East Midlands and Norfolk.
 
Over the centuries most of Spalding’s industries were those commonly associated with a market town and inland port. In the twentieth century food processing and other industries related to the intensively cultivated surrounding area have predominated.
 
Books and other printed sources

Abbreviations: LHA = Lincolnshire History and Archaeology (SLHA journal); LP&P = Lincolnshire Past & Present (SLHA Magazine); LIA = Lincolnshire Industrial Archaeology (forerunner of LHA, 1966-1973)
  • Birch, Neville, Berrill’s of Spalding, LIA Vol 6, No.4, 1971
  • Goode, C T, The Great Northern & Great Eastern Joint Railway (March to Doncaster), author, 1989
  • Ludlam, A J, The Lincolnshire Loop Line and the River Witham, Oakwood Press, 1995
  • Price, Dorothea, River Welland, Amberley, 2012
  • Seaton, Keith, The River Welland, Shipping and Mariners of Spalding, History Press, 2013
  • Seaton, Keith. Spalding and Around through Time, Amberley, 2015
  • Squires, Stewart, Steppingstone Bridge, Spalding, LHA 46, 2011
  • Wright, Neil R, Spalding: An Industrial History, (Book) LIA, 1973
  • --, Elsoms: The History, Elsoms, 1994 

 Town Bridge, rebuilt 1838 

Lock's (smock) Windmill

STAMFORD: Industrial History: Bibliography
Books and other printed sources on the industrial heritage of the town

The population of the town in 1801: 3932; 1851: 7326; 1901: 7218
 
Stamford, at the extreme south-west corner of Lincolnshire, is an attractive stone-built town. Its importance as a commercial and trading centre over the centuries is based to some extent on its position on the Great North Road (later the A1).
 
One of the country’s earliest canals - partly the navigable River Welland - created an important route from the town to the Wash via Market Deeping and Spalding in the late sixteenth century. The main railway line between London and the north by-passed Stamford, almost certainly curbing the development of the town in the nineteenth century.
 
The excellent building stone in and around the town has always been much in demand, and has sustained quarrying, building and a range of related industries. Other notable early industries of the town included pottery, bell founding, and watch and clock making.
 
In the Victorian period new industries emerged at Stamford. Blackstone’s, an engineering firm that developed a worldwide market, became the largest employer in the town, and several other mechanical or electrical engineering firms were also successful. Other notable companies between the 1850s and 1950s included Williamson Cliff (refractory bricks), Hayes (wagons and carriages), Blashfield (terracotta), Kitson (pressure lamps) and Pick (motor cars).
 
Books and other printed sources

Abbreviations: LHA = Lincolnshire History and Archaeology (SLHA journal); LP&P = Lincolnshire Past & Present (SLHA Magazine); LIA = Lincolnshire Industrial Archaeology (forerunner of LHA, 1966-1973)

  • Birch, Neville, Stamford’s Industrial Past: An Untold Story, [Book], SLHA, 2021
  • Birch, Neville, Anglo-Saxon Iron Foundries in Stamford, LIA Vol 1, No.4, 1966
  • Brooks, Gordon, Motor Car Manufacturers of Lincolnshire: 1. Pick Motor Cars, LIA Vol 5, No.2, 1970
  • Cox, Ralph, Hayes and Son, [Book], Stamford Properties,1970
  • Franks, D L, The Stamford and Essendine Railway, [BOOK],Turntable Enterprises, 1971
  • Franks, D L, Llewellyn Jewitt’s View of the Stamford Brick and Tile Works, LIA Vol 7, No.4, 1972
  • Ireson, A S, The Stones of Stamford, [Book], Stamford Town Council, 1985
  • Jordan, A and E, Stamford All Change! How the Railway came to Stamford, [BOOK], Amphion Press, 1996
  • Key, Michael, Pick of Stamford, [Book], Paul Watkins, 1994
  • Key, Michael, A Century of Coachbuilding, [Book], Paul Watkins, 1990
  • Key, Michael, A Vey Brief History of Blackstone and Co. Ltd, [Book], the author, 1999
  • Key, Michael, Blackstone & Co of Stamford, in Redmore, K, 'Ploughs, Chaffcutters & Steam Engines', SLHA, 2007
  • Key, Michael, The Kitson Empire Lighting Company Limited, Light International. Vol 4, No 1
  • Raines, David and Sleaford U3A Group, King’s Mill, Stamford, LHA 39, 2004
  • Rhodes, John, Great Northern Lines to Stamford, [Book], KMS Books, 1988
  • Rogers, Alan, The Making of Stamford, [Book], Leicester University Press, 1965
  • Rogers, Alan, The Book of Stamford, [Book], Barracuda Books, 1983
  • Sheehan, N J, Newstead Bridge, Stamford, LP&P 118, 2019
  • Simpson, Keith, The Stamford Canal, [Book], Deepings Heritage, second edition 2010
  • Smith, Martin, Stamford Pubs and Breweries, [Book], Spiegel Press, 2006 
  • Surry, Nigel, Traffic on a Lincolnshire Road 1838-39: Newstead Toll Bar, LIA Vol 4, No.4, 1969
  • Taylor, Gary, Tobacco Pipe Making in Stamford, LP&P 38, 1999
  • Tebbutt, Laurence, Stamford Clocks and Watches, [Book], the author, 1975
  • --, Blackstone Engine at Hereford Waterworks, LP&P 72, 2008

Hudd's Mill 

Midland Railway Station

Blackstone's workshop 

Hayes' wagon

EAST LINDSEY: Industrial History: Bibliography
Books and other printed sources on the industrial heritage of the district

East Lindsey, the largest of the county’s districts, includes a long stretch of coastline from Wainfleet to Tetney – about 40 miles – and extends to the west as far as Wragby, a mere 10 miles from Lincoln.
 
The district includes a large portion of the Lincolnshire Wolds, a chalk-based upland rising to a little over four hundred feet. It also has areas of marshland, fen and clay vale.
 
The two largest settlements are Skegness, a seaside resort, population 20,000, and Louth, an inland market town, population 17,000. There are several small market towns which have grown up to serve a local area and many villages where for centuries agricultural work predominated.
 
The main industry of East Lindsey is agriculture, especially cereal growing, and businesses have emerged over the years in both towns and villages to supply farmers with materials and equipment and to process the products of their farms.
 
Implement and machine makers were to be found in many places as the nineteenth century progressed; millwrights found steady employment, as did wheelwrights and blacksmiths.
 
Most sizeable settlements had windmills for grinding grain and a smaller number had watermills. Maltings for barley and breweries were a common feature of the towns.
 
During both world wars of the twentieth century several airfields were built in this area; its easterly position was ideal for both defence and offence, and long runways were easily laid out in its flat terrain.
 
The second half of the twentieth century saw the introduction of plastics and packaging plants at Wragby, Horncastle and Louth.

Books and other Printed Sources

Abbreviations: LHA = Lincolnshire History and Archaeology (SLHA journal); LP&P = Lincolnshire Past & Present (SLHA Magazine); LIA = Lincolnshire Industrial Archaeology (forerunner of LHA, 1966-1973)

The area in general
  • Foster, Meryl & Simmons, Ian, Goates and Draynes: Dikereeves’ accounts from the Seventeenth Century [East Fen], LP&P 106, 2016
  • Hancock, Terry, The Wolds at War, in Robinson, David N, ‘The Lincolnshire Wolds’, Windgather Press, 2009
  • Redmore, Ken, Some Brick Kilns and Brickmakers of East Lincolnshire, in Howard, Jean & Start, David 'All Things Lincolnshire', SLHA, 2007 
  • Wright, Neil R, East Lincolnshire Railway: Crossing Keeper’ Cottages, LHA 13 1978
  • Wright, Neil R, Transport in the Wolds, in Robinson, David N, ‘The Lincolnshire Wolds’, Windgather Press, 2009
  • Wynn, Peter, Nineteenth Century Chalk Quarrying and Lime Burning in the South-Eastern Lincolnshire Wolds, LHA 50. 2015
Individual towns and villages

Sources are listed in alphabetical order of location. Note: Horncastle and Louth have been given separate pages in the website

  • Osborne, Mike, Home Direction Finder Structure [Addlethorpe], LP&P 80, 2010
  • Dow, George, Alford & Sutton Tramway, book published by the author, 1984
  • Moore, Colin, An English Country Millwright at the end of the Nineteenth Century, [Thompson of Alford] TIMS 97, 2018
  • Kirkham, Betty, Museum of Drainage [Anderby], LP&P 10, 1993
  • Davies, A, Baumber Brick Kiln, LHA 21, 1986
  • --, National Award for Baumber Brick Kiln, LN 63, 1990
  • Osborne, Mike, Defence of Britain [Binbrook], LP&P 23, 1996
  • Wilson, Catherine M, Burgh le Marsh Windmill: Its Early History, LHA 40, 2005
  • Lester, Chris, Dogdyke Pumping Station, LP&P 51, 2003
  • Raines, David and Sleaford U3A Group, Dogdyke Pumping Station, LHA 39, 2004
  • Squires, Stewart, Donington on Bain – The Second Platform. LHA 48, 2013
  • Lawie, Kit, Memories of the Brickyard [East Keal], Marden Hill Press, 2007
  • Waite, R L, Railway Signalling at Firsby, LIA Vol 4, No.4, 1969
  • Crust, Linda, Beech Farm, Greetham, LP&P 26, 1996
  • Newton, Eric D, Gunby Hall Water Supply, LHA 47, 2012
  • Kirkham, Betty, Wartime Pillboxes [Hogsthorpe], LP&P 9, 1992
  • Wilson, Gordon (Ed), Recollections of a Lincolnshire Miller, Robert Wilson of Huttoft, Louth NALS, 1994
  • Czautjkowski, Michael, The Kirkstead (Woodhall Spa) Coalfield, LHA 25, 2000
  • Lester, Chris & Redmore, Ken, Water Supply at Grange Farm, Langton by Spilsby, LHA 45, 2010
  • Neller, Ruth, Mablethorpe Water Tower, LP&P 38, 1999
  • Mills, Dennis, Titus Kime, Entrepreneur of Mareham le Fen, 1848-1931, and the Eldorado Potato Boom of 1903-1904, in Howard, Jean & Start, David ‘All Things Lincolnshire’, SLHA, 2007
  • Padley, Chris, De Dion Bouton Car [Market Rasen], LP&P 80, 2010
  • Turner, John T, Moorby and Honington Camps, LP&P 59, 2005
  • Turner, John T, RAF North Cotes Missile Site, LHA 38, 2003
  • Plummer, Martin, RAF Donna Nook [North Somercotes], author, 2011
  • Adams, Chris, Rabbits, Sheep, Cows & Four Farmers [Oxcombe], LP&P, 97, 2014
  • Neller, Ruth, Skegness: A History of Railway Excursions, LHA 46, 2011
  • Neller, Ruth, Skegness, Mablethorpe and Cleethorpes: Contrasts of Land Ownership and Investment in the Development of Seaside Resorts, LHA 47, 2012
  • Kime, Winston, Skegness Presentation Tank, LP&P 5, 1991
  • --, The History: A Family History of Spring Manufacture, Skegness Springs Limited, 2010
  • Turner, John T, Cold War Remains in Lincolnshire [Skendleby], LP&P 46, 2002
  • Lester, Chris, The ACE HIGH communications Station at former RAF Stenigot, LHA 32, 1997
  • Lester, Chris J, RAF Stenigot Chain Home Radar Station, LP&P 30, 1997
  • Birch, Neville (Ed), Sutterby Lime Kiln, LIA Vol 3, No.3, 1968
  • Kirkham, Betty et al, Floods on the East Coast, 1953 [Sutton on Sea], LP&P 51, 2003
  • Redmore, Ken & Lester, Chris, Tathwell Lake and Water Supply, LHA 39, 2004
  • Barton, B M J, Tattershall Bridge, LHA 32, 1997
  • Wilson, C M (Ed), Tattershall Bridge, LHA 13, 1978
  • Hunt, W M, The Promotion of Tattershall Bridge and the Sleaford to Tattershall Turnpike, LHA 31, 1996
  • Squires, Stewart, Empire Wireless Communication [Tetney, Burgh le Marsh], LP&P 10, 1993 
  • Hopcroft, David, Humber Radio [Trusthorpe], LP&P 79. 2010
  • --, Radio Bungalows at Trusthorpe, LP&P 73, 2008
  • Birch, M A, J G & G W Freshney, wheelwrights and builders of Willoughby, LIA Vol 7, No.2, 1972
  • Newton, Eric D, Withcall Farm Water Supply, LHA 47, 2012
  • Squires, Stewart, Woodhall Junction Urinal, LHA 46, 2011
  • Downs, Angela, Toll Bar Keeper, John Farrow [Wragby], LP&P 102, 2015
  • Raines, David and Sleaford U3A Group, Wragby Station Building, LHA 41, 2006
  • Sleaford U3A Group, Wragby Railway Goods Yard, LHA 47, 2021
  • Squires, Stewart, Blacksmith’s and Saddler’s Shop, Market Place, Wragby, LHA 41, 2006

Alford windmill

Stenigot radar transmitting tower

Baumber brick kiln

Skegness pier

WEST LINDSEY: Industrial History: Bibliography
Books and other printed sources on the industrial heritage of the district

This district covers the area immediately north of Lincoln, stretching along the Trent to the west, along the Witham to the south and the Wolds to the east. It includes the large town of Gainsborough and the much smaller market towns of Caistor and Market Rasen. Large Lincoln-orientated villages have developed along the southern edge of the district in the past few decades.
 
The Trent, on the western fringe, has always carried goods and the Ancholme, rising in the district, has provided a good link north to the Humber. Caistor was once served by a canal running eastwards from the Ancholme and a similar scheme for Market Rasen was planned but not implemented.
 
Railways were built from Lincoln to Gainsborough (1849) and to Grimsby (1848) through the district and both survive with limited traffic. A plan in 1881 to create a roadside tramway from Lincoln to Brigg would have run through the centre of the district but this was aborted.
 
As in other parts of Lincolnshire, industries have grown up to support agriculture or to process its products. Mining for ironstone in the Wolds between Market Rasen and Caistor occurred on a small scale in the mid-twentieth century. The particular industries of Gainsborough, a riverside port, are dealt with in a separate section of the website.
 
Several significant airfields (e.g. Scampton, Wickenby, Fiskerton, Dunholme Lodge, Bardney) were established in this area in wartime.
 
Books and other printed sources

Abbreviations: LHA = Lincolnshire History and Archaeology (SLHA journal); LP&P = Lincolnshire Past & Present (SLHA Magazine); LIA = Lincolnshire Industrial Archaeology (forerunner of LHA, 1966-1973)

The area in general or sources covering more than one parish
  • Birch, Neville (Ed), Points of Interest for the Industrial Archaeologist: Market Rasen & District, LIA Vol 6, Nos.2&3, 1971
  • Carey, Ray, The Fossdyke Navigation: 1741-1846, LP&P 28, 1997
  • Sass, Jon, Mills on the Rase, LHA 21, 1986
  • Squires, Stewart, Ironstone Mining in the Lincolnshire Wolds, (BOOK), SLHA, 2017
  • Wheeler, R C, The Fossdyke Navigation, LHA 49, 2014

Individual towns and villages
Sources are listed in alphabetical order of location. Note: Gainsborough has been given a separate page in the website
  • Padley, Christopher, Caistor Canal, LHA 44, 2009
  • Padley, Christopher, The Caistor Canal [revised and illustrated], (BOOK), SLHA, 2015
  • Birch, Neville, and Leverington, J, Claxby Ironstone Mines, LIA Vol 3, No.2, 1968
  • Everson, Paul, A 16th Century Manorial Woad Mill at Claxby, LHA 19, 1985
  • Padley, Christopher, Coal in Lincolnshire [Claxby], LP&P 51, 2003
  • Squires, Stewart, Claxby Ironstone Mine, LHA 34, 1999
  • Squires, Stewart & Russell, Rex, Claxby Ironstone Mine, LHA 34, 1999
  • Squires, Stewart, Windmills and Wildlife [Corringham], LP&P 20, 1995
  • Lewis, M J T, Dunham Bridge: A Memorial History, (BOOK), SLHA, 1978
  • Leach, T R, Brewing and Brickmaking in Dunholme, LIA, 1968
  • Wilson, Catherine M, Ivy House Farm, East Torrington, LHA 25, 1990
  • Barton, Barry & Wilson Catherine, Fiskerton Sluice, LHA 25, 1990
  • Parker, Charles, Royal Observer Corps at Fiskerton. LP&P 32, 1998
  • Turner, John T, Cold War Remains and the ROC [Fiskerton], LP&P 55, 2004
  • Foster, James, Glentworth Cliff Local Defence Volunteers, LP&P 96, 2014
  • Squires, Stewart, The Greetwell Ironstone Mine, LHA 45, 2010
  • Squires, Stewart, Greetwell Ironstone Quarry [and the Lincoln Eastern Bypass], LP&P 125, 2021
  • Squires, Stewart, The Greetwell Ironstone Mines, in Walker, Andrew, ‘Uphill Lincoln II: The North-Eastern Suburbs, SL, 2010
  • Squires, Stewart, Two Lost Royal Flying Corps Buildings in Lincolnshire [Harpswell], LP&P 113, 2018
  • Hewitt, S Frank, Hewitt’s Windmill, Heapham, (BOOK), the author, nd
  • Williams, John, RAF Hemswell & Derek Clinkard, LP&P 39, 1999
  • Wilson, Catherine et al, Manor Farm, Langworth, LHA 36, 2001
  • Ward, Brian, History of Public Houses in Market Rasen, LP&P 86, 2012
  • Boyce, Douglas, Market Rasen: The Coming of the Railway, LP&P 33, 1998
  • Ward, Brian, A History of Market Rasen Station, (BOOK), Rase Heritage Society, 2012
  • Padley, Chris, De Dion Bouton Car [Market Rasen], LP&P 80, 2010
  • Squires, Stewart, Roadside Water Supply [Middle Rasen], LP&P 93, 2013
  • Newton, Eric, Drilling for Water: W G Hamblett and Son of Nettleham, LP&P 124, 2021
  • Squires, Stewart, Visit to Nettleton Mines, 1995, LP&P 23, 1996
  • Page, Chris, The Railway between Lincoln and Saxilby, LIA Vol 5, No.1, 1970
  • Hewis, Chris, The A57 from Saxilby to Dunham, LP&P 88, 2012
  • Squires, Stewart, Fossdyke Footbridge, Saxilby, LHA 25, 1990
  • Newton, Eric D, Black Springs Water Supply Plant, Thoresway, LHA 51 2016
  • Sass, Jon A, Thorganby Hall Waterwheel, LHA 40, 2005
  • Wilson, C M, Brandy Wharf Bridge, Waddingham, LHA 16, 198
  • Squires, Stewart, The Walesby Shaft, LHA 42, 2007
  • Barton, Barry, Bishopbridge, West Rasen, LP&P 13, 1993
  • Wilkinson, Alan J, Bishopbridge stone plinth [West Rasen], LP&P 14, 1993


Greetwell ironstone mine, 1933


South Kelsey. Mill Lock on the Caistor Canal

Heapham, Hewitt's windmill

NORTH KESTEVEN: Industrial History: Bibliography
Books and other printed sources on the industrial heritage of the district

The district of North Kesteven, in the west of the county immediately south of Lincoln, is centred on the market town of Sleaford (which is given a separate section in this website).
 
Limestone upland runs north-south through the area, flanked by the Trent valley to the west and fenland to the east. The land is intensively cultivated and apart from the North Hykeham and the Lincoln ‘fringe’, population density is low.
 
Limestone has been quarried at various locations and there has been extensive extraction of sand and gravel in the north of the district. Other industries have generally been on a small scale and of limited duration.
 
World wars of the twentieth century brought several airfields to this district: Cranwell, and Waddington were - and remain - particularly significant, but there were also important WW2 bases – mainly for bomber squadrons - at Wellingore, Coleby, Digby, Fulbeck, Swinderby, Metheringham, Nocton, and Skellingthorpe.
 
Books and other printed sources

Abbreviations: LHA = Lincolnshire History and Archaeology (SLHA journal); LP&P = Lincolnshire Past & Present (SLHA Magazine); LIA = Lincolnshire Industrial Archaeology (forerunner of LHA, 1966-1973); SOL = Survey of Lincoln
 
Sources are listed in alphabetical order of location. Note: Sleaford has been given a separate page in the website 
  • Wilson, C M, Aubourn Watermill, LHA 13, 1978
  • Barton B M J, St John’s Hospital Water Tower, Bracebridge Heath, LHA 32, 1997
  • Squires, Stewart, Bracebridge Heath Belfast Truss Hangar, LP&P 41, & 42, 2000
  • Parker, Charles, World War I Hangars at Bracebridge Heath, LP&P 48, 2002
  • Mills, Joan and Dennis, Traditional Farmsteads and Farming at Branston, Lincolnshire, (Book) Branston History Group, 2011
  • Wilson, C M, Branston Gasworks, LHA 16, 1981, LHA 17, 1982
  • Redmore, Ken, Branston Hall Gasworks, LHA 45, 2010
  • Stevenson, Peter, Mere ‘Y’ Listening Station [Branston], LP&P 87, 2012
  • Lester, Chris, Guidepost at Branston Mere, LP&P 46, 2002
  • Squires, Stewart, Former Water Mill at 1 Lincoln Road, Branston, LHA 46, 2011
  • Mills Dennis, The People of Branston in 1881 and the Building of the Railway, LP&P 116, 2019
  • Hair, Eric, Canwick Dovecote, LP&P 74, 2009
  • Singleton, Alan, Canwick Hall Sewage treatment Plant, LHA 44, 2009
  • Mills, Joan & Dennis, The Holy Well and Conduit at Canwick, LP&P 23, 1996
  • Birch, Neville, Claypole Post Mill, LIA Vol 7, No.2, 1972
  • Sass, Jon A, A Former Flax Mill, Claypole, LHA 14 197
  • Brook, Shirley, Tale of Two Farmsteads [Coleby, NK], LP&P 71, 2008
  • Stephenson, Peter, Long-Range Flights from RAF Cranwell, LP&P 77, 2009
  • Stephenson, Peter, RAF Cranwell’s Runway and the M1, LP&P 54, 2007
  • Gray, Peter, Aerial Photo of RAF Cranwell, c.1923, LP&P 25, 1996
  • --, RAF Digby Operations Room Museum, LP&P 32, 1998
  • Birch, Maureen, Eagle Moor: An Industrial Hamlet, LP&P 98, 2015
  • Squires, Stewart, Evedon Siding and the Slea Navigation, LHA 44, 2009
  • Pocklington, A R, Heckington’s Magnificent Eight-Sailed Windmill, (Book) Friends of Heckington Mill, 2000
  • Hollamby, Ken et al, Holdingham Watermill, LHA 50, 2015
  • Watson, Colin, Young’s Watermill, Kirkby Green, LHA 18, 1983
  • Moore, Nick, A Delightful Find: Leadenham on the Lincoln to Honington Railway, LP&P 106, 2016
  • Squires, Stewart, Two Lost Royal Flying Corps Buildings in Lincolnshire [Leadenham], LP&P 113, 2018
  • Redmore, Ken, Remains of FIDO at RAF Metheringham, LHA 46, 2011
  • Pape, G E, Blacksmith’s Shop at Osbournby, LIA Vol 3, No.1, 1968
  • Squires, Stewart, Potterhanworth Water Tower, LP&P 66, 2007
  • Gostick, Les, Coal in Lincolnshire [Quarrington], LP&P 50, 2003
  • Healey, Kenneth, A Home Guard Exercise [Scopwick], LP&P 19, 1995
  • Watts, Martin, Manor Mill (Wright’s Mill), Scopwick, LHA 18, 1983
  • --, Scopwick Windmill, LP&P 15, 1994
  • Porter, John, Lancaster Crash, 1943 [Scredington], LP&P 97, 2014
  • Hubbard-Hall, Claire, Skellingthorpe Aerodrome, in Walker, Andrew (Ed), ‘Birchwood, Hartsholme and Swanpool, Lincoln’s Outer South-Western Suburbs, SOL, 2014
  • Wheeler, Rob, The Building of Skellingthorpe Reservoir, in Brook Shirley et al (Eds), ‘Lincoln Connections: Aspects of City and County since 1700’, SLHA, 2011
  • Towers, Jean, Internal Recesses; Hen Roosts? [Waddington], LP&P 64, 2006

Washingborough, railway station and ferry

Heckington, Pocklington's Mill

RAF Coleby Grange control tower 

Metheringham, WW2 emergency railway control building

SOUTH KESTEVEN: Industrial History: Bibliography
Books and other printed sources on the industrial heritage of the district

The southern half of the former Kesteven division of Lincolnshire – in the far south-west of the County - became the District of South Kesteven in 1974. Grantham is the administrative centre; Stamford is the other town of significant size.
 
Much of the district is limestone heath land; there is a strip of fenland along the extreme east. The River Witham rises in the south of the District near the County boundary and flows north towards Lincoln, though is not navigable here. The Great North Road (later the A1) and the East Coast Main Line both run diagonally across the south west corner of the District.
 
The industries of Grantham, Stamford and Bourne are dealt with on other pages. The rural area has had industries related to the underlying limestone (quarrying, ironstone mining, lime burning) but little else of significance.
 
There were small airfields and emergency landing grounds at a few locations in the First World War. Larger bomber bases operated during the Second War at Folkingham, Barkston Heath, Harlaxton and North Witham.
 
Books and other printed sources
 
Abbreviations: LHA = Lincolnshire History and Archaeology (SLHA journal); LP&P = Lincolnshire Past & Present (SLHA Magazine); LIA = Lincolnshire Industrial Archaeology (forerunner of LHA, 1966-1973)

In alphabetical order of location. Note: Bourne, Grantham and Stamford are included in separate lists 
  • Tonks, Eric, The Ironstone Mines of the Midlands, Part VIII South Lincolnshire   
  • Jepson, D M, Belton Park Military Railway, LIA Vol 4, No.1, 1969
  • Squires, Stewart, Country House Tramways: Belton House, Harlaxton Manor and Stoke Rochford, LHA 47, 2012
  • Squires, Stewart, Castle Bytham Lime Kiln, LHA 45, 2010
  • Sass, Jon, Lincolnshire’s Last Smock Mill [Dyke], LHA 36, 2001
  • Squires, Stewart, Fulbeck Airfield Control Tour, LP&P 32, 1998
  • Turner, John T, Moorby and Honington Camps, LP&P 59, 2005
  • Birch, Neville, Little Bytham Brickworks, LP&P 20, 1995
  • Beckwith, Ian S, Londonthorpe Mill, LIA Vol 2 No.4, 1967
  • Newton, Eric, A Lincolnshire Waterfall [Stoke Rochford], LP&P 91, 2013 
  • Squires, Stewart, How did Twenty get its Name?, LP&P 122, 2020
  • Barton, Barry, Uffington Bridge – a Conundrum, LP&P 12, 1993

Uffington, bridge abutment, Stamford Canal

Belton House, water supply waterwheel

Carlton Scroop, microwave repeater station

SOUTH HOLLAND: Industrial History: Bibliography
Books and other printed sources on the industrial heritage of the district

The District of South Holland covers the extreme south-east part of the county, bordering the Wash to the east and Norfolk and Cambridgeshire to the south. It is entirely low-lying fenland.
 
Spalding (given a separate bibliography) is the largest settlement. Other towns in the district are Crowland, Long Sutton, Holbeach and Donington. There are several villages which are large by Lincolnshire standards.
 
Draining the land has always been of prime concern. A myriad of wind driven pumps were replaced in succession by steam, diesel and electric-powered pumps over the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
 
Agriculture, especially intensive growing of vegetables, dominates the area. The bulb industry has declined in recent years, but growing flowers and other crops under glass continues.
 
Other industries in this area tend to support agriculture or process its products. The small port of Sutton Bridge on the River Nene remains in operation.
 
Books and other printed sources

Abbreviations: LHA = Lincolnshire History and Archaeology (SLHA journal); LP&P = Lincolnshire Past & Present (SLHA Magazine); LIA = Lincolnshire Industrial Archaeology (forerunner of LHA, 1966-1973)

Books and articles about the area
  • Barton Barry, The Lucas Freelite, LP&P 51, 2003
  • Hills, Richard L, Machines, Mills & Unaccountable Costly Necessities: A Short History of the Drainage of the Fens, (Book), Goose & Sons, 1967
  • Hills, Richard L, The Drainage of the Fens, (Book), Landmark, 2003
  • Jackson, Beryl, Potato Memories [Fens], LP&P 99, 2015
  • Padley, Chris, Peppermint Growing and Distillation [Fenland], LP&P 30, 1997
  • Price, Dorothea, River Welland, Amberley, 2012
  • Squires, Stewart & Wilson, Catherine (Eds), Growing Better: Lincolnshire and the Potato, (Book), SLHA, 2011
  • Summers, Dorothy, The Great Level: A History of Drainage and Land Reclamation in the Fens, (Book), David & Charles, 1976
Individual towns and villages.
Sources are listed in alphabetical order of location. Note: Spalding has been given a separate page on the website
  • Barsley, Harold, The Woad Industry of Algarkirk, LIA Vol 4, No.2, 1969
  • Driver, P, The Turnpike Roads of the Algarkirk, Fosdyke and Sutterton Area, LIA Vol 1, No.3, 1966
  • Dover, Dorothy, Migrating Labour at Dawsmere, LIA Vol 5, No.3. 1970
  • Lewis, Gerald A, Counter Drain Railway Bridge, Deeping St Nicholas, LHA 17, 1982
  • Healey, Hilary, Milestones at Fosdyke, LP&P 46, 2002
  • Hoare, Douglas, Managing a Farm in the Mid-Nineteenth Century [Gedney], LP&P 46, 2002
  • Birch, Neville, An 1857 Letter Box at Gosberton, LIA Vol 6, No.1, 1971
  • Wilson, C M, Peppermint Distillery at Holbeach, LIA Vol 8, No.1, 1973
  • Wright, Neil R, An Industrial Archaeology and History of Long Sutton and Sutton Bridge, (Book), LIA, 1970
  • Wright, Neil, Sutton Bridge & Long Sutton: An Industrial History, (Book), SLHA, 2009
  • Sass, Jon A, Sneath’s Mill, Lutton Gowts, LHA 13 1978
  • Bonwick, Luke, Sneath’s Mill, Lutton Gowts, (Booklet), The Mills Archive, 2018
  • Clowes, David, Sneath’s Mill, Lutton Gowts, LP&P 83, 2011
  • Biggadike, John, The Story of Moulton Windmill, (Booklet), Moulton Windmill, 2014
  • Sass, Jon A, Moulton Mill, LHA 34, 1999
  • Curtis, Joyce M, Windmills in Pinchbeck, Lincolnshire, (Book), SLHA 2014
  • Healey, Hilary, Quadring Water Tower, LP&P 38, 1999
  • Redmore, Ken, Sutton Bridge Dock, LHA 48, 2013

Crowland, water tower 

Lutton Gowts, windmill tower

Sutton Bridge, swing bridge over the Nene

NORTH LINCOLNSHIRE: Industrial History: Bibliography
Books and other printed sources on the industrial heritage of the unitary county

The unitary authority of North Lincolnshire, created in 1996, includes the Isle of Axholme in the west, the south bank of the Humber and the edge of Grimsby in the east. Scunthorpe is the largest centre of population; there are several small market towns serving a largely rural area.
 
The area includes two stetches of upland, both running north-south: the limestone ridge immediately east of the Trent and the broader chalk Wolds from the Humber at Barton. The remainder of the area is low-lying: the peaty fen of the Isle of Axholme, the central valley of the Ancholme and the coastal marsh along the Humber estuary.
 
Industries are more varied than in most parts of the county. Ironstone quarrying and iron & steel making developed on a large scale in Scunthorpe and have continued on the basis of imported ore. Chalk is extensively quarried near Barton for making cement and whiting.
 
Alluvial clays near the Humber bank are well suited to brick and tile manufacture and many relatively small brickyards have operated in this area. This was the largest area of brickmaking in the county.
 
Other industries are those expected of a rural area containing a major river (Trent) and on a broad river estuary (Humber). 
 
Books and other printed sources

Abbreviations: LHA = Lincolnshire History and Archaeology (SLHA journal); LP&P = Lincolnshire Past & Present (SLHA Magazine); LIA = Lincolnshire Industrial Archaeology (forerunner of LHA, 1966-1973); TIMS = The International Molinological Society

Books and articles about the area
  • Day, Nicholas J, Bricks and Sails: The John Franks (1757-1957), Grimsby Museums and Heritage Services, 1995
  • Dunston, G, The Rivers of Axholme, A Brown & Sons, 1909
  • Holm, S A, Brick and Tile Making in South Humberside, Scunthorpe Museum, 1976
  • Kirk, Martin, Ferries Across the Humber, Pen & Sward Transport, 2014
  • Neave, David, Pantiles: Their Early Use and Manufacture in the Humber Region, in Tyszka, Dinah et al, Lincolnshire County Council, 1991 
  • Page, C J, History of the Ancholme Navigation, LIA, 1969
  • Page, C J, Further Notes on the Ancholme Navigation, LIA Vol 7, N0.3, 1972
  • Taylor, Mike, Shipping on the Humber: The South Bank, Tempus, 2003
  • Waddington, H S, Industrial Archaeology Visit to Humber Ports, LN 60 and 61, 1989
Books and articles about individual towns and villages.

Sources are listed in alphabetical order of location. Note: Barton-upon-Humber, Brigg and Scunthorpe have been given separate pages on the website
  • Birch, Neville, Barnetby Maltkilns, LIA Vol 3, No.1, 1968, LIA Vol 5, No.1, 1970
  • Padley, Chris, The Lady and the Engine Driver [Barnetby], LP&P 94, 2014
  • Waddington, H S, Obsolete Stone Sleeper Blocks Re-used at Barnetby, LHA 23, 1988
  • Sass, Jon A, Kingsgarth Mill, Barton upon Humber and the Pioneering Work of Robert Sutton, TIMS 101, 2020
  • Redmore, Ken, Brickmaking in East Halton: An Uncommon Multi-Chamber Kiln, LHA 51, 2016
  • Basquill, Sara, Lincolnshire’s Prize Sheep [Frodingham], LP&P 120, 2020
  • Mouncey, G & Sass, Jon A, Reeson’s Mill at Hibaldstow, LIA Vol 8, No.2, 1973
  • Lewis, M J T, Horkstow Bridge, LIA Vol 8, No.1, 1973
  • Lester, C J, Horkstow Bridge: The Chain Anchorages, LHA 39, 2004
  • Page, C and Upton, M J, Messingham Mill, LHA 15, 1980
  • Birch, Neville, Franks’ Brickworks at South Ferriby, LIA Vol 5, No.4, 1970
  • Waddington, H S, New Holland Pier, LHA 17, 1982
  • White, P R, and Tye, A, Waterways & Railways in Barton and New Holland, LIA, c.1970
  • Hancock, Terry, North Killingholme Flying Boat Jetty, LP&P 87, 2012
  • Wilson C M (Ed), Roxby Horse Gin, LHA 12, 1976
  • Newton, Eric D, Two Pumped Water Supply Systems for the Gardens of Scawby Hall, LHA 51, 2016
  • Parker, Charles, T & J Fletcher [Winterton], in Redmore, K, Ploughs, Chaffcutters & Steam Engines, SLHA, 2007
  • --, Wrawby Post Mill, (booklet), c.1970

Horkstow, suspension bridge

Owston Ferry, drainage pumping station

East Halton, brick kiln

Keadby, gas fired power station

AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY in Lincolnshire : Bibliography
Books and other printed sources on agricultural machinery in Lincolnshire

The major industry of Lincolnshire – agriculture – has spawned a wide range of supporting or dependent enterprises. The manufacture of machinery for use in the farmer’s fields and barns is an outstanding example of this.
 
In many instances blacksmiths, and to a lesser extent wheelwrights and carpenters, extended their range of skills to make simple agricultural implements and machines on a small scale. Other men began specifically as machine makers and those who had sound investment and well-designed products flourished to create substantial businesses, perhaps reaching national of even international markets.
 
Several of the more successful manufacturers of agricultural machinery went on to diversify into general mechanical engineering. The emphasis in this section is on those firms whose principal products were for the farm.
 
Books and other printed sources

Abbreviations: LHA = Lincolnshire History and Archaeology (SLHA journal); LP&P = Lincolnshire Past & Present (SLHA Magazine); LIA = Lincolnshire Industrial Archaeology (forerunner of LHA, 1966-1973); SOL = Survey of Lincoln

Books
  • Anderson, Peter, Three Decades of Marshall Tractors, Farming Press, 1997
  • Brooks, Richard & Longdon, Martin, Lincolnshire-Built Engines, Lincolnshire County Council, 1986
  • Dale, John et al, Ward & Dale, A History of the Sleaford Cultivators, Steam Plough Club, 2014 
  • Dewey, Peter, Iron Harvests of the Field: The Making of Farm Machinery in Britain since 1800, Carnegie Publishing, 2008
  • Pointer, Michael, Hornsbys of Grantham, 1815-1918, Bygone Grantham, 1978
  • Pointer, Michael, Ruston & Hornsbys, Grantham, 1918-1963, Bygone Grantham, 1977
  • Redmore, K (Ed), Ploughs, Chaffcutters and Steam Engines, SLHA, 2007 
  • Wilson, C M (Ed), Ploughs up to Date [facsimile of Hornsby catalogue, 1891], Lincolnshire County Council, 1984
Journal articles and book chapters
  • Cartwright, Adam, Rainforths of Lincoln, LHA 45, 2010
  • Cartwright, Adam, Rainforths of Lincoln: A Postscript, LP&P 102, 2015
  • Cartwright, Adam, W Rainforth & Sons, in Walker, Andrew, ‘Lincoln’s Engineering Industries, A Concise History, c.1780-1980s’, SOL, 2021 
  • Cooke, Hugh, John Cooke & Sons, in Walker, Andrew, ‘Lincoln’s Engineering Industries, A Concise History, c.1780-1980s’, SOL, 2021 
  • Dent, Anthony, Marshall Engine in Zimbabwe, LP&P 115, 2019
  • Key, Michael, Blackstone & Co of Stamford, in Redmore, K, Ploughs, Chaffcutters & Steam Engines, SLHA, 2007
  • Page, Chris, A History of Michael Penistan Junior, Agricultural Engineer, Lincoln, LHA 49, 2014
  • Page, Chris, Agricultural Machinery Making in Upper Lincoln, in Walker, Andrew, ‘Uphill Lincoln I: Burton Road, Newport and the Ermine Estate’, SOL, 2009
  • Pentelow, A W C, The Search for the Borzig [ploughing and drainage engine], LIA Vol 8, No.2, 1973
  • Redmore, Ken, Early Days of Steam Powered Threshing, LP&P 53, 2003
  • Wheeldon, J R (Ed), Cooke’s Celebrated Ploughs [facsimile of John Cooke of Lincoln catalogue, nd]
  • Wilson, C M (Ed), Roxby Horse Gin, LHA 12, 1976
  • Wilson, Catherine, James Coultas of Grantham, in Redmore, K, (Ed), ‘Ploughs, Chaffcutters & Steam Engines’, SLHA, 2007
  • Wright, Neil R, William Howden & Son, Engineers of Boston, LHA 33, 1998
  • Wright, Neil R, Tuxford and Sons of Boston: A Family Business, LHA 38, 2003

Blackstone & Co (Stamford), haymaker

John Cooke & Sons (Lincoln), plough

Foley Brothers (Bourne), straw elevator

BRICKS and TILES in Lincolnshire: Bibliography
Books and other printed sources on bricks and tiles in Lincolnshire

Bricks imported from Hull were used for the late fourteenth century gatehouse at Thornton Abbey and the Gainsborough Old Hall (mid-fifteenth century).  However, Tattershall Castle (1440s), Wainfleet Magdalen School (1484) and Bardney St Lawrence chancel (1430s) were built of locally made bricks. In the succeeding centuries brick – usually local – was often the choice for houses of both aristocracy and gentry.

As in other lowland counties with no suitable local stone, brick making gradually became widespread across the north and east of the Lincolnshire, i.e. excluding much of the limestone belt to the west. Larger brickworks were established in or close to the major population centres.  The highest concentration of sites was on the Humber bank around Barton where clay was abundant and, importantly, both the import of fuel and export of finished bricks and tiles were relatively easy.  (Pantiles had first been made here in the late eighteenth century.)

By the mid-nineteenth century bricks were almost invariably made in permanent kilns rather than clamps, and a variation of the familiar Scotch kiln with arched, enclosed roof became common in east Lincolnshire, though it remained rare elsewhere in the UK.  With a few notable exceptions, Lincolnshire bricks are a dark-red in colour.

One tilery continues to operate (2013) at Barton on Humber and the owner is also developing a visitor centre at the former Blyth’s Tilery immediately to the west of the Humber Bridge.  The remains of enclosed Scotch kilns can be seen at Baumber, Farlesthorpe, Stixwould and Sutton on Sea.  A larger down-draught brick kiln of the Staffordshire type survives at East Halton near Immingham.

Brick kiln at Sutton on Sea

Brick kiln at Sutton on Sea

Blyth's Tilery, Barton on Humber

Hack (drying shed), Blyth's Tilery, Barton on Humber

 

Books and Other Sources

  • Baines, W, Brick Making: A Lincolnshire Industry, unpublished pamphlet, UP5883, Lincoln Central Library
  • Birch, Neville, Little Bytham Brick Works, Lincolnshire Past & Present 20 (1995)
  • Birch, Neville, Franks’ Brickworks at South Ferriby, Industrial Archaeology Group at Lincolnshire LHS, Vol 5, No.4, 1970
  • Booth, Adrian, William Blyth’s Tileries, Railway Bylines, April-May 1998
  • Bryant, G F & Land, N D, Bricks, Tiles and Bicycles in Barton before 1900, Barton WEA, 2007
  • Burnett, M L, A Lincolnshire Brickmaker [Parker of Friskney], Lincolnshire Life, Aug 1970, pp30-31
  • Carey, Raymond, The River and John Frank, and Reads Island, The River and John Frank Enterprise, c1997
  • Davies, A, Baumber Brick Kiln, Lincolnshire History and Archaeology 21 (1986)
  • Day, Nicholas J, Bricks and Sails, saga of boats and bricks, Great Grimsby Borough Councils Museums and Heritage Services, 1995
  • Franks, D L, Llewellyn Jewitt’s View of the Stamford Brick and Tile Works, Industrial Archaeology Group at Lincolnshire LHS, Vol 7, No.4, 1972
  • Hammond, M D P, Brick Kilns: An Illustrated Survey [includes kiln at Sutton on Sea], Industrial Archaeology Review, Volume 1 No. 2 (1977)
  • Holm, S A, Brick and Tile Making in South Humberside, the author, 1976
  • Lawie, Kit, Memories of the Brickyard, Marden Hill Press, 2007
  • Leach, T R, Dunholme Bricks, unpublished pamphlet, 1967
  • Neave, David, Pantiles: Their Early Use and Manufacture in the Humber Region in Tyszka et al (Eds), 'Land, People and Landscapes', Lincolnshire CC, 1991
  • Newton, Ron, My Childhood Playground [Barton brickyards], Hutton Press, 2001
  • Redmore, K, Some Brick Kilns and Brick Makers of East Lincolnshire in Howard J & Start D, (Eds), 'All Things Lincolnshire', SLHA, 2007
  • Redmore, K, Brick Making in the West End of Lincoln, in Walker, A, (Ed) 'Lincoln’s West End', Survey of Lincoln, 2008
  • Redmore, K, Brickmaking in East Halton: An Uncommon Multi-Chamber Kiln, SLHA Journal, Vol 51, 2016
  • Robinson, D N, Lincolnshire Bricks: History and Gazetteer, Heritage Lincolnshire, 1999
  • Robinson, D N, Brick and Tile Making [Lincolnshire sites] in Bennett & Bennett, 'An Historical Atlas of Lincolnshire', University of Hull, 1993
  • Russell, R, The Growth of the Brick & Tile Industry in Lincolnshire [unpublished manuscript], c1993
  • Smith, T P, Hussey Tower, Boston: a Late Medieval Tower House of Brick, Lincolnshire History and Archaeology 14 (1979)
  • Squires, Stewart, Cross O Cliff Hill Brickworks, Industrial Archaeology Note, SLHA Journal, Vol 27, 1992
  • Squires, Stewart, Brick is Beautiful, Lincolnshire Past & Present, 120, 2020
  • Trueman, A E, The Lias Brickyards of South-West Lincolnshire, Lincolnshire Naturalists' Union, 1920
  • Wales, D & White, A, Magdalen College School, Wainfleet, Lincolnshire CC, 1981
  • White, A, Early Brick Buildings in Lincolnshire: A Guide, Lincolnshire Museums: City & County Museum, 1982
  • Wilson, C M, Lincoln Brick Company Works, Waddington, Lincolnshire History and Archaeology 12 (1977)

Ken Redmore, 2013

CANALS and WATERWAYS in Lincolnshire : Bibliography
Books and other printed sources on canals and waterways in Lincolnshire

Waterways have been used for transport in Lincolnshire for many centuries.  The Vikings and Danes are believed to have used the River Trent, and the Fossdyke is popularly said to have been built by the Romans as part of a transport link for food and supplies to be taken from the east of England up to York and beyond. Navigation must have depended on water levels and may not have been possible in dry periods.

Prior to the Industrial Revolution the Ancholme was improved in 1287 and the Welland made navigable by 1673. The forerunner of the modern canals, the Bridgewater Canal from Preston Brook to Manchester, gained its Act of Parliament in 1759 but Grundy had carried out his survey for the Louth Canal in 1756 (built 1770).

The Industrial Revolution brought improvements to the Ancholme and the Trent; locks on the Witham and the Louth and the Tattershall Canals, all between 1767 and 1786. Now came the period known as the Canal Mania and by 1830 waterway travel was possible to Sleaford, Horncastle, Grantham, Caistor (actually Moortown) and on the River Nene. There were failed attempts to reach both Alford and Market Rasen.

There have also been a number of land drainage channels that have been or are still navigable. The widest network of these are the Witham Navigable Drains, a collection  of waterways that are still navigable today north of Boston although, like their ancient precursors, the navigable limits are set by their fluctuating water levels.

Alvingham Lock, Louth Canal

Staunch, River Bain, Horncastle

Books and Other Sources

Abbreviations: LHA = Lincolnshire History and Archaeology (SLHA journal); LP&P = Lincolnshire Past & Present (SLHA Magazine); LIA = Lincolnshire Industrial Archaeology (forerunner of LHA, 1966-1973)

  • Acton, R, Navigations and the Mid-Lincolnshire Economy, 1790-1830, LHA Volume 15, 1980
  • Acton, R, The Market Rasen Canal, 1801-1980, LHA Volume 17, 1982
  • Almond, John, The Grand Sluice, Boston, Lincolnshire Past & Present 105, 2016
  • Atkin, Wendy J, The Old Warehouse in Navigation Yard, Sleaford, LP&P No 33/34, Autumn and Winter 1998
  • Barton, Barry & Wilson, Catherine, Fiskerton Sluice, Lincolnshire History & Archaeology 25, 1990
  • Beckwith, I S, The Book of Gainsborough, Barracuda Books Ltd, 1988 (in particular Waterways, pp95-108)
  • Beckwith, I S, The River Trade of Gainsborough, 1500-1850, LHA Volume 2, 1967
  • Beckwith, I S, The History of Transport and Travel in Gainsborough, Gainsborough Urban District Council, 1971
  • Bennett, Stewart and Bennett Nicholas, An Historical Atlas of Lincolnshire, University of Hull Press, 1993, (in particular, Wright, Neil, Navigable Waterways and Canals,  pp 80/81)
  • Birch, N C, Stamford an Industrial History, SLHA, Reprint 1999 (in particular pp26-28)
  • Birch, N C, Waterways and their uses in Lincolnshire, LP&P No 28, Summer 1997
  • Bowskill, Derek, Northeast Waterways, a cruising guide to the Witham, Trent, Yorkshire Ouse and associated waterways, Imray Laurie Norie & Wilson, 1986
  • Brooks, M, Horncastle Canal Survey, LIA Vol 1, No 1, 1966
  • Caldicott, Arthur, Life on the Trent and Humber Rivers, Richard Kay, 1999
  • Carey, Ray, The Fossdyke Navigation, 1741-1846, the era of the Ellisons, LP&P No 29, Autumn 1997
  • Carey, Raymond, The River and John Frank, and Reads Island, The River and John Frank Enterprise, c1997
  • Cheetham, A K, Grantham Canal, LIA Volume III, Number 1, p3
  • Clapson, Rodney, Barton and the River Humber, Barton on Humber WEA, 2007
  • Clarke, J N, The Horncastle and Tattershall Canal, Oakwood Press, 1990
  • Corrie, Euan, Restoration Report Grantham Canal, in Waterways World, June 1994
  • Cove-Smith, Chris, The Grantham Canal Today, Grantham Canal Restoration Society, 1974
  • Craven, E, Notes from the papers (Lincoln Steam Packets), LIA Volume 8, No 3, p51, 1973
  • Day, Nicholas J, Bricks and Sails, saga of boats and bricks, Great Grimsby Borough Councils Museums and Heritage Services, 1995
  • Day, Nicholas J, Humber Keels by John Frank plus Sloopmen of South Ferriby, River and John Frank Enterprise, 1996 Edition
  • de Salis, Henry, Bradshaw’s Canals and Navigable Rivers of England and Wales, 1904, Old House Books, Reprint 2012
  • D’Orley, Alun A, The Humber Ferries, Nidd Valley Narrow Gauge Railways, 1968
  • Dunston, G, The Rivers of Axholme, A Brown & Sons, 1909 (book)
  • English, Jim, River Trips on the River Trent, Lincolnshire Past & Present No 27, Spring 1997
  • Fletcher, Harry, A Life on the Humber, Keeling to Shipbuilding, Faber & Faber, 1975
  • Gostick, Les, Our River Slea, Self published, no date
  • Hadfield, Charles and Boughey, Joseph, Hadfield’s British Canals, Eighth Edition, Budding Books, 1994
  • Hadfield, Charles and Skempton, AW, William Jessop, Engineer, David and Charles, 1979
  • Hadfield, Charles, The Canals of the East Midlands, David and Charles, Second Edition, 1970
  • Hunt, W M, The Sleaford Navigation Office, LHA Volume 10, 1975
  • Hunt, W M, Horncastle Navigation Engineers, 1792-94, Journal of the Railway and Canal Historical Society (RCHS), March 1979
  • Hunt, W M, The Lincoln High Bridge Scheme, RCHS Journal, Nov 1991
  • Jones, P, The Ever Confusing Horncastle Canal, RCHS Journal July 2003
  • Lester, C J, Navigation House, Sleaford, LP&P No 3, Spring 1991
  • Lester, C J, Horkstow Bridge: The Chain Anchorages, Lincolnshire History & Archaeology 39, 2004
  • Lord, Peter, Portrait of the River Trent, Robert Hale, Reprint 1972
  • Lyons, N J L, Louth Navigation Act of 1828, LIA Volume IV, Number 1, p2, January 1969
  • McKnight, Hugh, The Shell Book of Inland Waterways, David and Charles, 1975
  • Newton, Ron, My Childhood Playground, Hutton Press, 2001. (Includes memories of the brickworks, the chalk quarries and the Haven, to the west of Barton upon Humber)
  • Padley, Christopher, The Caistor Canal, LHA Volume 44, 2009; reprint with revisions & extra illustrations, SLHA, 2015 
  • Page, C J, Ancholme Navigation, LIA Volume VII, Number 3, p.33, 1972
  • Page, C J, Further Notes on the Ancholme Navigation, LIA Vol 7, N0.3, 1972
  • Paget-Tomlinson, Edward W, The Complete Book of Canal and River Navigations, Waine Research Publications, 1978
  • Pawley, Simon & Turland, Michael, Sleaford Navigation Portal, Lincolnshire Past & Present 120, 2020
    Pawley, Simon & Turland, Michael, Sleaford Navigation Portal: Some Further Thoughts, Lincolnshire Past & Present 121, 2020
  • Perrot, David, Editor, Ordnance Survey Guide to the Waterways, 3, North, Robert Nicholson Publications, 1983
  • Pitman, Tony, The Grantham Canal Guide, Grantham Canal Society, 2008
  • Price, Dorothea, A River Journey through the Deepings, no publisher or date stated
  • Redmore, Ken, Horncastle Navigation: Poling Holes, Lincolnshire History & Archaeology 47, 2012
  • Richardson, Christine, Lingering in Lincs, in Waterways World, October 1992. (Fossdyke, Witham and Navigable Drains)
  • Robinson, David, Putting into Port, pp31-41, in Lincolnshire on the Move, Editors Howard, Jean and Lester, Chris, SLHA, 2005
  • Russell, Ronald, Lost Canals of England and Wales, in particular Chapter 5, The East Midlands, (Grantham Canal) and Chapter 8, The East, (Louth, Horncastle and Caistor Canals),  David and Charles, 1971
  • Schofield, Fred, Humber Keels and Keelmen, Terence Dalton Ltd, 1988
  • Simmons, Brian and Cope-Faulkner, Paul, The Car Dyke, Heritage Lincolnshire, 2006
  • Simpson, Keith (Ed), The Stamford Canal, Deepings Heritage, 2010
  • Sizer, S M, Louth Navigation, A History, (1756-1926), Louth Navigation Trust, 1999
  • Skempton, A W, The Engineering Works of John Grundy (1719-1783), LHA 19 (1984)
  • Squires, Stewart, Fossdyke Footbridge, Saxilby, Lincolnshire History & Archaeology 25, 1990
  • Squires, Stewart, A Tale of Two Bridges (Fossdyke, Saxilby), in Waterways World, September 1988
  • Squires, Stewart, Ferries of the Tidal Trent, in Canal and Riverboat, May 1990
  • Squires, Stewart, Hauling Along the Cut, pp42-50 in Lincolnshire on the Move, Editors Howard, Jean and Lester, Chris, SLHA, 2005
  • Squires, Stewart, The Caistor Canal, in Waterways World, May 1990
  • Squires, Stewart, Evedon Siding and the Slea Navigation, Lincolnshire History & Archaeology 44, 2009
  • (anon), The Stamford Canal, Deepings Heritage, no date
  • Waddington, H S, Louth Navigation, LHA Volume 21, 1986
  • Walker, Andrew, Editor, Brayford Pool, Lincoln’s Waterfront Through Time, Survey of Lincoln, 2012
  • Wheeler, R C, The Fossdyke Navigation, Lincolnshire History & Archaeology 49, 2014
  • Wheeler, R C, Enforcing Speed Limits on the Witham, Lincolnshire Past & Present 91, 2013
  • White, Peter R, The Alford Canal, Journal of the Railway and Canal Historical Society, Volume XVI No.2, 1970
  • White, P R, and Tye, A, Waterways & Railways in Barton and New Holland, LIA, c.1970
  • Wilson, Catherine, Ed, Barton on Humber, Clapson’s Boatyard, LHA, Volume 12, 1977
  • Wilson, Catherine, Ed, Lincoln, Stamp End Lock Footbridge, LHA, Volume 12, 1977
  • Wright, Neil R, Lincolnshire Towns and Industry 1700-1914, Chapters 3 and 8, History of Lincolnshire Committee, 1982
  • Wright, Neil R, Sutton Bridge – An Industrial History, SLHA, 2009
  • Wright, Neil, Witham Town, Boston, Terminus of the Witham Navigation, LIA, Volume VI, Number 4,1971

Updated 2022


DEFENCE and WARTIME in Lincolnshire : Bibliography
Books and other printed sources on defence and wartime in Lincolnshire

This section is concerned with twentieth century defence. The county has remains of Norman and medieval castles and later buildings have appeared with fashionable battlements and moats, but books and papers about them are not included in this bibliography.
 
As a coastal county on the eastern side of the country, Lincolnshire has played a strong role in national defence in the modern period. This was particularly the case during the two world wars of the twentieth century.
 
A number of airfields with grass runways were established in the First World War by the Royal Naval Air Service and the Royal Flying Corps. Buildings and other structures survive from some of these stations; several were modified and extended for WW2.
 
The Second World War saw a great increase in numbers of stations, especially for Lancasters and other bomber aircraft. There are many buildings still standing on former WW2 airfield sites, and a small number of these are still operational.
 
Anti-invasion structures, such as defence batteries, pill boxes and machine gun posts, are to be found around airfield sites, near the coast and alongside strategic routes. Pylons and buildings of the Chain Home radar transmitting and receiving station at RAF Stenigot still survive, though much reduced in number.
 
Later developments of the Cold War period brought new structures to North Cotes, Fiskerton, Skendleby, Coleby and elsewhere.
 
Books and other printed sources

Abbreviations: LHA = Lincolnshire History and Archaeology (SLHA journal); LP&P = Lincolnshire Past & Present (SLHA Magazine); LIA = Lincolnshire Industrial Archaeology (forerunner of LHA, 1966-1973); SOL = Survey of Lincoln

Books
 
  • Blake, Ron, Hodgson, Mike & Taylor, Bill, The Airfields of Lincolnshire since 1912, Midland Publishing, 1984
  • Crust, Linda, Ration Books and Rabbit Pie: Lincolnshire Folk Remember the War, SLHA, 2008
  • Green, Peter, Mike Hodgson & Bill Taylor, Wings over Lincolnshire, Midland Publishing, 1994
  • Halfpenny, Bruce, Military Airfields of Lincolnshire and the East Midlands
  • Hall, C E, Look, Duck and Vanish: The Home Guard in Rural Lincolnshire, Heritage Lincolnshire, 1995
  • Hancock, T N, Bomber County, Lincolnshire Library Service, 1978
  • Osborne, Mike, 20th Century Defences in Britain: Lincolnshire, Brassey’s, 1997
  • Osborne, Mike, Defending Lincolnshire: A Military History from Conquest to Cold War, The History Press, 2010
  • Otter, Patrick, Lincolnshire Airfields in the Second World War, Countryside Books, 1996
  • Percy, Chris & Ryan, Noel, Lincolnshire Aviation in World War I, Aviation Heritage Lincolnshire, 2012
  • Percy, Chris & Ryan, Noel, Lincolnshire Aviation in World War II, Aviation Heritage Lincolnshire, nd
  • Percy, Chris & Ryan, Noel, Lincolnshire Aviation in the Cold War, Aviation Heritage Lincolnshire, 2013
  • Plummer, Martin, RAF Donna Nook, author, 2011
  • Pullen, Richard, The Landships of Lincoln, Tucann, 2003
  • Rodger, David and Cooper, Patrick (Eds), Lincolnshire Women at War, Heritage Lincolnshire, 1997
  • Sansom, Mark, The Secret Army: Wartime Underground Resistance in Lincolnshire, Heritage Lincolnshire, 2004
  • Turner, John T, ‘Nellie’: The History of Churchill’s Lincoln-Built Trenching Machine, SLHA, 1988
  • Walls, John, Clayton & Shuttleworth & Marshall Aircraft Production, Brayford Press, 1977
  • Walls, J & Parker, C, Aircraft Made in Lincoln, SLHA, 2000
 
Journal articles and book chapters
 
  • Bailey, Adrian, Robey’s and RAF Fylingdale, LP&P 90, 2013
  • Basquill, Sara, First World War Tank in Museum [Lincoln], LP&P 101, 2015
  • Birch, Maureen, Lancaster W4778 [1943 loss], LP&P 20, 1995
  • Birch, Neville, Robey’s Military Aircraft, LIA Vol 8, No.2, 1973
  • Carle, Annabel, Sir William Tritton and the Tank, LP&P 61, 2005
  • Davies, Andrew, Grantham’s Presentation Tank, LP&P 4, 1991
  • Evans, Gwyn, A Reappraisal of Lincoln Tank Production in 1916, LHA 50, 20515
  • Foster, James, Glentworth Cliff LDV, LP&P 96, 2014
  • Gostick, Les, Zeppelin Raid [Sleaford], LP&P 39, 2000
  • Gray, Adrian, The Birth of the Tank, in Gray, Adrian, ‘Lincolnshire Headlines’, Countryside Books, 1993
  • Gray, Peter, Aerial Photo of RAF Cranwell, c.1923, LP&P 25, 1996
  • Hancock, Terry, North Killingholme Flying Boat Jetty, LP&P 87, 2012
  • Hancock, Terry, The Wolds at War, in Robinson, David N, ‘The Lincolnshire Wolds’, Windgather Press, 2009
  • Healey, Kenneth, A Home Guard Exercise [Scopwick], LP&P 19, 1995
  • Hodson, Maurice, The West End Depot, in Andrew (Ed), ‘Lincoln’s West End’, SOL, 2008
  • Hollis, Barry, The Impact of the Royal Air Force, in Mills, Dennis R (Ed), ‘Twentieth Century Lincolnshire’, SLHA, 1989
  • Hopcroft, David, Humber Radio [Trusthorpe], LP&P 79. 2010
  • Hubbard-Hall, Claire, Lincoln Drill Hall, in Walker, Andrew, ‘Lincoln’s City Centre: North of the Witham’, SOL, 2015
  • Hubbard-Hall, Claire, Skellingthorpe Aerodrome, in Walker, Andrew (Ed), ‘Birchwood, Hartsholme and Swanpool, Lincoln’s Outer South-Western Suburbs, SOL, 2014
  • Huggins, Rhona, Comment on Turner, John T, ‘Nellie’: The History of Churchill’s Lincoln-Built Trenching Machine, NL 60, 1989
  • Jepson, D M, Belton Park Military Railway, LIA Vol 4, No.1, 1969
  • Kime, Winston, Skegness Presentation Tank, LP&P 5, 1991
  • Kirkham, Betty, Wartime Pillboxes [Hogsthorpe], LP&P 9, 1992
  • Lester, Chris, The ACE HIGH communications Station at former RAF Stenigot, LHA 32, 1997
  • Lester, Chris J, RAF Stenigot Chain Home Radar Station, LP&P 30, 1997
  • Osborne, Mike, Buildings for Conflict, in Judson, Paula and Lester, Chris, ‘Twentieth Century – What 
  • Heritage’, Heritage Lincolnshire, 2001
  • Osborne, Mike, First World War Searchlight Position, Lincoln, LHA 41, 2006
  • Osborne, Mike, Defence of Britain [Binbrook], LP&P 23, 1996
  • Osborne, Mike, Home Direction Finder Structure [Addlethorpe], LP&P 80, 2010
  • Parker, Charles, Royal Observer Corps at Fiskerton, LP&P 32, 1998
  • Parker, Charles, World War I Hangars at Bracebridge Heath, LP&P 48, 2002
  • Parker, Charles, The Royal Observer Corps in Lincolnshire & Humberside, Lincolnshire Aviation Society, revised edition 2013
  • Parker, Charles, Aircraft Production in the First World War [Lincoln], in Walker, Andrew, ‘Lincoln’s Engineering Industries, A Concise History, c.1780-1980s’, SOL, 2021 
  • Pawley, Simon, Boston Road PoW Camp [Sleaford], LP&P 106, 2016
  • Porter, John, Lancaster Crash, 1943 [Scredington], LP&P 97, 2014
  • Redmore, Ken, Remains of FIDO at RAF Metheringham, LHA 46, 2011
  • Redmore, Ken, World War 1 and Lincoln Gasworks, LP&P 103, 2016
  • Squires, Stewart, Empire Wireless Communication [Tetney, Burgh le Marsh], LP&P 10, 1993 
  • Squires, Stewart, Fulbeck Airfield Control Tour, LP&P 32, 1998
  • Squires, Stewart, Bracebridge Heath Belfast Truss Hangar, LP&P 41, & 42, 2000
  • Squires, Stewart, Women Munition Workers in Lincoln, LP&P 111, 2018
  • Squires, Stewart, Two Lost Royal Flying Corps Buildings in Lincolnshire [Leadenham, Harpswell], LP&P 113, 2018
  • Stevenson, Peter, RAF Cranwell’s Runway and the M1, LP&P 54, 2007
  • Stevenson, Peter, Long-Range Flights from RAF Cranwell, LP&P 77, 2009
  • Stevenson, Peter, Wartime Memories [Grantham], LP&P 59, 2005
  • Stevenson, Peter, Mere ‘Y’ Listening Station [Branston], LP&P 87, 2012
  • Swann, Philip, Dark Skies: Royal Air Force Bomber Command in Lincolnshire, in Walker, Andrew (Ed), ‘Aspects of Lincoln: Discovering Local History’, Wharncliffe Books, 2001
  • Turner, John T, RAF North Cotes Missile Site, LHA 38, 2003
  • Turner, John T, Cold War Remains in Lincolnshire [Skendleby], LP&P 46, 2002
  • Turner, John T, Cold War Remains and the ROC [Fiskerton], LP&P 55, 2004
  • Turner, John T, Prisoner of War Camps [Lincolnshire], LP&P 58, 2005
  • Turner, John T, Moorby and Honington Camps, LP&P 59, 2005
  • Walker, Andrew, The Fourth Northern General Hospital, [Lincoln], in Walker, Andrew, ‘Uphill Lincoln II: The North-Eastern Suburbs’, SOL, 2010
  • Walker, Andrew, The Barracks [Burton Road, Lincoln], in Walker, Andrew, ‘Uphill Lincoln I: Burton Road, Newport and the Ermine Estate’, SL, 2009
  • Williams, John, RAF Hemswell & Derek Clinkard, LP&P 39, 1999 
  • Wilson, John, Grimsby and Butterfly Bombs, LP&P 18, 1994
  • Yeates-Langley, Ann, Women Munition Workers in Lincoln during the First World War, LHA 49, 2014
  • Yeates-Langley, Ann, Female Munition Workers in Lincoln, LP&P 100, 2015
  • Yeates-Langley, Ann, The West Common at War: Number Four Acceptance Park, in Andrew (Ed), ‘Lincoln’s West End’, SL, 2008
  • --, Radio Bungalows at Trusthorpe, LP&P 73, 2008
  • --, RAF Digby Operations Room Museum, LP&P 32, 1998
  • --, Generators in a WW2 Air Raid Shelter, LP&P 74, 2009
  • --, The Birth of the Tank, LP&P 101, 2015

Grantham, Barracks, c.1870

North Killingholme, seaplane jetty 

Theddlethorpe, 'pill box'

Stenigot, radar receiving pylon 

Binbrook RAF Station, memorial

DRAINAGE and SEWERAGE in Lincolnshire : Bibliography
Books and other printed sources on drainage and sewerage in Lincolnshire

A good portion of Lincolnshire lies close to – or even below - sea level, especially in the fens (mainly in the south-east of the county) and the coastal marsh. Land drainage is a longstanding problem. Even where there are extensive field drains, water very often has to be lifted into embanked rivers or drainage channels.
 
Pumps have assisted with drainage, firstly as wind-powered scoop wheels, and then, as the nineteenth century progressed, with more sophisticated pumps powered by steam and later diesel engines. Today’s pumps rely upon a supply of electricity.
 
Sewerage has long been the responsibility of town authorities, later to extended to rural areas by district councils. Some country houses installed small sewage treatment plants.
 
Books and other printed sources

Abbreviations: LHA = Lincolnshire History and Archaeology (SLHA journal); LP&P = Lincolnshire Past & Present (SLHA Magazine); LIA = Lincolnshire Industrial Archaeology (forerunner of LHA, 1966-1973); SOL = Survey of Lincoln

Books 
  • Hills, Richard L, Machines, Mills & Unaccountable Costly Necessities: A Short History of the Drainage of the Fens, Goose & Sons, 1967
  • Hills, Richard L, The Drainage of the Fens, Landmark, 2003 
  • Miles, W D, A History of the Drainage of Bourne South Fen and Thurlby Fen, Ingelow Press, 1976
  • Mills, Dennis, Influence and Effluence: Public Health, Sewers and Politics in Lincoln, 1848-50, SLHA, 2015 
  • Summers, Dorothy, The Great Level: A History of Drainage and Land Reclamation in the Fens, David & Charles, 1976
Journal articles and book chapters 
  • Almond, John, W H Wheeler, Polymath of Boston, LP&P 88, 2012
  • Barton, Barry & Wilson Catherine, Fiskerton Sluice, LHA 25, 1990
  • Foster, Meryl & Simmons, Ian, Goates and Draynes: Dikereeves’ accounts from the Seventeenth Century [East Fen], LP&P 106, 2016
  • George, Beryl, Lincoln, Sewerage and Government Inspectors, LHA 46, 2011
  • Hickman, Paul, Some Nineteenth-Century Wigford Nuisances, in Walker, Andrew, ‘Lincoln’s City Centre South of the River Witham’, SOL, 2016
  • Kirkham, Betty, Museum of Drainage [Anderby], LP&P 10, 1993
  • Lester, Chris, Dogdyke Pumping Station, LP&P 51, 2003
  • Lester, Chris, Gwynne’s Pumps at Wiggenhall St German, LP&P 83, 2011
  • Mills, Dennis, Brayford Pool and George Giles’ Sanitary Report of 1849, in Walker, Andrew (Ed), ‘Brayford Pool: Lincoln’s Waterfront through Time’, SOL, 2012
  • Pawley, Simon, Sleaford Drainage and Public Health, LP&P 7, 1992
  • Raines, David and Sleaford U3A Group, Dogdyke Pumping Station, LHA 39, 2004
  • Singleton, Alan, Canwick Hall Sewage Treatment Plant, LHA 44, 2009
  • Stevenson, Peter, Fenland Draglines, LP&P 74, 2009
  • Wheeler, Rob, A Tunnel and a Tankard Valve, in Walker, Andrew, ‘Boultham and Swallowbeck: Lincoln’s South-Western Suburbs, SOL, 2013 
  • Wheeler, Rob, Great Gowts – A Forgotten Ford, in Walker, Andrew, ‘Lincoln’s City Centre South of the River Witham’, SOL, 2016
  • Wheeler, Rob, Drainage in the Neighbourhood [South-East Lincoln]; the Importance of Sincil Dyke, in Walker, Andrew (Ed), ‘South-East Lincoln: Canwick Road, South Common, St Catherine’s and Bracebridge’, SOL, 2011
  • Wheeler, Rob, Drainage and Brayford Pool, in Walker, Andrew (Ed), ‘Brayford Pool: Lincoln’s Waterfront through Time’, SOL, 2012
  • --, Boultham Waterworks, Sincil Drain [photos], LP&P 92, 2013

Dogdyke Pumping Station 

Boston, Black Sluice Pumping Station

Canwick Hall, sewage treatment plant

ENGINEERING in Lincolnshire : Bibliography
Books and other printed sources on engineering in Lincolnshire - EXCEPT Lincoln

The lists below EXCLUDE Engineering in LINCOLN, which is given a separate page on this website. MOTOR VEHICLES sources are also separately listed.
 
As in Lincoln the majority of the significant engineering firms in other part of the county had their origins in the manufacture of agricultural implements and machinery or as iron founders. Two firms, Marshall of Gainsborough, and Blackstone of Stamford dominated their towns by their size and significance. Boston also boasted important pioneering engineers with an eye to the farming industry in Howden and Tuxford.
 
Millwrights were widespread; some such as Saunderson of Louth and Thompson of Alford built and maintained mills over a wide area.
 
Examples of specialist engineers based in the county are Rose Brothers, packing machinery makers (Gainsborough), Sullivan, mining equipment (Grantham), and Charles Hett, water supply equipment (Brigg). As the twentieth century progressed there were firms making electric motors and electrical equipment, such as Cutting of Stamford.
 
Books and other Printed Sources

Abbreviations: LHA = Lincolnshire History and Archaeology (SLHA journal); LP&P = Lincolnshire Past & Present (SLHA Magazine); LIA = Lincolnshire Industrial Archaeology (forerunner of LHA, 1966-1973); SOL = Survey of Lincoln

Books 
  • Barton, Barry, Civil Engineering Heritage: East Midlands, Ruddocks Publishing, 2016
  • Birch, Neville, Stamford’s Industrial Past, SLHA, 2021
  • Brooks, Richard & Martin Longdon, Lincolnshire Built Engines, Museum of Lincolnshire Life, 1986
  • Clark, Ronald H, Steam-Engine Builders of Lincolnshire, re-published by SLHA, 1998
  • Edlington, S & Rose, D, Rose Brothers (Gainsborough) Ltd, authors, 2009
  • Key, Michael, A Very Brief History of Blackstone and Co. Ltd, the author, 1999
  • Key, Michael, Blackstone & Co of Stamford, in Redmore, K, Ploughs, Chaffcutters & Steam Engines, SLHA, 2007
  • Labrum, E A, Civil Engineering Heritage: Eastern and Central England, Institution of Civil Engineers, 1994
  • Pointer, Michael, Hornsbys of Grantham, 1815-1918, Bygone Grantham, 1978
  • Pointer, Michael, Ruston & Hornsbys, Grantham, 1918-1963, Bygone Grantham, 1977
  • Pointer, Michael, The Rise and Fall of Aveling-Barford, 1933-1988, Bygone Grantham, 1997
  • Sass, Jon A, Saundersons: Millwrights & Engineers of Louth, The Mills Archive, 2017
  • Stevenson, Peter, Grantham: An Industrial Trail, SLHA, 2007
  • Wright, Neil R, Lincolnshire Towns and Industry: 1700-1914, SLHA, 1982
  • Wright, Neil (Ed), Lincolnshire’s Industrial Heritage- A Guide, SLHA, 2004
Journal articles and book chapters 
  • Bailey, Michael, William Billingsley & Henry Banks [Lincoln], LP&P 32, 1998
  • Birch, Neville, and White, P R, Fowler & Holden (Grimsby) Ltd, LIA Vol,3, No,2, 1968
  • Dent, Anthony, Marshall Engine in Zimbabwe, LP&P 115, 2019
  • Edlington, Susan et al, J & B Edlington of Gainsborough, in Redmore, K, (Ed), ‘Ploughs, Chaffcutters & Steam Engines’, SLHA, 2007
  • Knapp, Malcolm, Coles Cranes, Dysart Road, Grantham, LHA 12, 1976
  • Page, Chris, James Hart & Sons of Brigg, in Redmore, K, ‘Ploughs, Chaffcutters & Steam Engines’, SLHA, 2007
  • Page, Chris, C L Hett of Brigg, in Redmore, K, ‘Ploughs, Chaffcutters & Steam Engines’, SLHA, 2007
  • Page, Chris, The Products of C L Hett, Ironfounder of Brigg, LIA Vol 7, No.4, 1972 and LIA Vol 8, No.3, 1973
  • Robinson, Michael, Lincolnshire-made Machines in the Tea Industry [Rustons, Marshalls], LP&P 106, 2016
  • Stevenson, Peter, Sullivans at Grantham, 1936-47, LP&P 44, 2001
  • Stevenson, Peter, Marshall’s and the Bristol F2B WW2 Fighter, LP&P 84, 2011
  • Wilson, Catherine, James Coultas of Grantham, in Redmore, K, (Ed), ‘Ploughs, Chaffcutters & Steam Engines’, SLHA, 2007
  • Wright, Neil R, William Howden and Son of Boston, in Redmore, K (Ed), ‘Ploughs, Chaffcutters & Steam Engines’, SLHA, 2007
  • Wright, Neil R, Tuxford and Sons of Boston, in Redmore, K (Ed), Ploughs, Chaffcutters & Steam Engines, SLHA, 2007
  • Wright, Neil R, Tuxford Ironworks at Black Sluice, LHA 23, 1988
  • Wright, Neil R, William Howden & Son, Engineers of Boston, LHA 33, 1998
  • Wright, Neil R, Tuxford and Sons of Boston: A Family Business, LHA 38, 2003
  • --, Blackstone Engine at Hereford Waterworks, LP&P 72, 2008

Tuxford (Boston), portable steam engine 

Hornsby-Akroyd (Grantham), oil engine

Blackstone (Stamford), EPV4 diesel engine

FARMS in Lincolnshire : Bibliography
Books and other printed sources on farms and farm buildings in Lincolnshire

Lincolnshire is primarily an agricultural county with low population density. The soils, terrain and climate – and the comparative lack of mineral resources – enable a high proportion of the land to be cultivated.
 
Traditionally the county’s farms were mixed, dependent on both cereal growing and animal husbandry. In more recent times livestock numbers have declined and many farms are 100% arable. Land in the fenland area is often more intensely cultivated with vegetable crops.
 
Following enclosure and the rapid rise in agricultural profitability, many new farmsteads were built in the nineteenth century; relatively few date from early periods.
 
Books and other printed sources

Abbreviations: LHA = Lincolnshire History and Archaeology (SLHA journal); LP&P = Lincolnshire Past & Present (SLHA Magazine); LIA = Lincolnshire Industrial Archaeology (forerunner of LHA, 1966-1973)

Books
  • Mills, Joan and Dennis, Traditional Farmsteads and Farming at Branston, Lincolnshire, Branston History group, 2011
  • Skehel, Mona, Tales from the Showyard, 200 Years of Agricultural Shows in Lincolnshire, Lincolnshire Agricultural Society, 1999
  • Squires, Stewart & Wilson, Catherine (Eds), Growing Better: Lincolnshire and the Potato, SLHA, 2011
  • Wilson, Catherine, Lincolnshire Farm Animals, SLHA 2012

Journal articles and book chapters
  • Adams, Chris, Rabbits, Sheep, Cows & Four Farmers [Oxcombe], LP&P, 97, 2014
  • Basquill, Sara, Lincolnshire’s Prize Sheep, LP&P 120, 2020
  • Brook, Shirley, Tale of Two Farmsteads [Coleby, NK], LP&P 71, 2008
  • Crust, Linda, Beech Farm, Greetham, LP&P 26, 1996
  • Hair, Eric, Canwick Dovecote, LP&P 74, 2009
  • Hoare, Douglas, Managing a Farm in the Mid-19th Century [Gedney], LP&P 46, 2002
  • Jackson, Beryl, Potato Memories [Fens], LP&P 99, 2015
  • Mills, Dennis, The Small Farm in Victorian Lincolnshire, LP&P 24, 1996
  • Mills, Dennis, Titus Kime, Entrepreneur of Mareham le Fen, 1848-1931, and the Eldorado Potato Boom of 1903-1904, in Howard, Jean & Start, David ‘All Things Lincolnshire’, SLHA, 2007
  • Padley, Chris, Peppermint Growing and Distillation [Fenland], LP&P 30, 1997
  • Redmore, K & Wilson, C M, Whitehaven Farm, Boston Road, Horncastle, LHA 38, 2003
  • Redmore, Ken, Early Days of Steam-Powered Threshing, LP&P 53, 2003
  • Redmore, Ken, War Ags in Lincolnshire, LP&P 91, 2014
  • Tinley, Ruth, Lincoln Corn Exchange, in Walker, Andrew, ‘Lincoln’s City Centre South of the River Witham’, SOL, 2016
  • Towers, Jean, Internal Recesses; Hen Roosts or Bee Boles?, LP&P 64, 2006
  • Walker, Andrew, The Cattle Market, 1846-1914 [Lincoln], in Walker, Andrew, ‘Monks Road: Lincoln’s East End through Time’, SOL, 2006
  • Wilson, Catherine M, Ivy House Farm, East Torrington, LHA 25, 1990
  • Wilson, Catherine et al, Manor Farm, Langworth, LHA 36, 2001

Moses Farm, Stenigot (early concrete buildings)

 

Irby on Humber, horse gin

GASWORKS ands ELECTRICITY WORKS in Lincolnshire : Bibliography
Books and other printed sources on gasworks and electricity works in Lincolnshire

In common with other parts of the country, all Lincolnshire towns and some larger villages had gasworks. The earliest gasworks were built in Stamford (1823); most other works were erected between 1830 and 1870.  Many gasworks closed at the time of nationalisation in 1949; others closed (maybe retaining a gasholder for stand-by storage) with the coming of natural gas around 1970.
 
Some country houses and factories also had equipment for generating gas for lighting, usually coal gas though by the early twentieth century acetylene or petrol/air generators were more common.
 
 
 
Photo: Lincoln Bracebridge Gasworks Retort House 

Books and other Sources

  • Bremner Smith, C & Page Chris, Lincoln's Public Undertakings, LIA Vol 2, No.3, 1967
  • Clark, A, The Lincoln Gas Light and Coke Company, LIA Vol 4, No.3, 1969 
  • Marks, A T, The County Gas Works Series: Lincolnshire, Author, 2019
  • Moore, Nicholas, John Thomas Brown Porter and the Gowts Bridge Foundry, in Walker, Andrew (Ed), 'Lincoln's Engineering Industries, A Concise History, c.1780-1980s', SOL, 2021
  • Page, Chris J, The Early History of Electrical Power in Lincoln, LIA Vol 6, Nos. 2 & 3, 1971
  • Redmore, Ken, Bracebridge Gasworks Event, 1938, LP&P 89, 2012
  • Redmore, Ken, Lincoln Gasworks in World War One, Lincolnshire Past & Present 103, 2016
  • Redmore, Ken, The Bracebridge Gasworks, in Walker, A (Ed), ‘South-East Lincoln’, Survey of Lincoln, 2011
  • Redmore, Ken, Newland Gasworks [Lincoln], The Lincoln Enquirer 25, 2013
  • Redmore, Ken, Gas Powered Buses in Lincoln, The Lincoln Enquirer 33, 2017
  • Redmore, Ken, Branston Hall Gasworks, Lincolnshire History & Archaeology, 45, 2010
  • Roberts, D E, The Grimsby Gas Undertaking, 1836-1949, East Midlands Gas, 1983
  • Roberts, D E, The Lincoln Gas Undertaking, 1828-1949, East Midlands Gas, 1981
  • Smith, Joan, From Chaos to Beauty: The Garden of Lincoln Gasworks, Lincolnshire Past & Present 88, 2012
  • Wilson, Catherine M, Branston Hall Gasworks, Lincolnshire History & Archaeology, 16, 1981
  • Woodford, L W, The Founding of Sleaford Gas Light Company, 1838-39, LIA, Vol 1, No.4, 1966
  • Wright, Neil R, Gasworks in Lincolnshire, LIA, Vol 7, No.3, 1972
  • Wright, Neil R, Boston by Gaslight: A History of the Boston Gas Undertaking since 1825, Richards Kay, 2002

MALTING and BREWING in Lincolnshire : Bibliography
Books and other printed sources on malting and brewing in Lincolnshire

Lincolnshire is well suited to growing barley, especially on the lighter upland soils, and this has led to the widespread development of malting and brewing industries. At one time every town had a least one malt kiln and several were the home to substantial breweries too.
 
Malt kilns, usually distinctive brick buildings, survive in many locations, in most cases converted for residential, commercial or industrial use. The former Bass maltings at Sleaford (still awaiting development in 2022) is one of Lincolnshire’s outstanding industrial monuments.
 
Generally speaking, brewery buildings are more likely to have been swept away, though there are small breweries still in full working order at Wainfleet and Stamford.
 
Books and other printed sources

Abbreviations: LHA = Lincolnshire History and Archaeology (SLHA journal); LP&P = Lincolnshire Past & Present (SLHA Magazine); LIA = Lincolnshire Industrial Archaeology (forerunner of LHA, 1966-1973); SOL = Survey of Lincoln
  • Barlow, Tony, Maltings on Brayford Wharf North, LHA 19, 1984
  • Betteridge, Stephen, Louth Northgate Maltings, LHA 20, 1985
  • Birch, Neville, Barnetby Maltkilns, LIA Vol 3, No.1, 1968, LIA Vol 5, No.1, 1970
  • Cartwright, Adam, Mowbray and Co Ltd, Brewers of Grantham, LHA 49, 2014
  • Cartwright, Adam, Lincoln’s Maltings, in Andrew (Ed), ‘Pubs in Lincoln: A History. The City’s Inns, Public Houses, Beerhouses, Breweries and Maltings’, SOL, 2017
  • Hickman, Paul, Soft Drink Manufacturing in the Neighbourhood, in Walker, Andrew, ‘Lincoln’s City Centre: North of the Witham’, SOL, 2015
  • Hodson, Maurice, Dawber’s Brewing and Public House Operations in Lincoln, Waterside South, in Andrew (Ed), ‘Pubs in Lincoln: A History. The City’s Inns, Public Houses, Beerhouses, Breweries and Maltings’, SOL, 2017
  • Hodson, Maurice, Dawber’s Brewery, in Andrew (Ed), ‘Lincoln’s West End’, SOL, 2008
  • Lewis, M J T, Hewitts Maltings, Grimsby, LHA 12, 1977
  • Lyons, N J L, White’s Mineral Water Factory, Elwes Street, Brigg, LIA Vol 6, No.1, 1971
  • Mouncey, G, Sergeant’s Brewery, Brigg, LIA Vol 4, No.2, 1969
  • Page, Chris, Drury Lane Brewery, in Walker, Andrew (Ed), ‘Lincoln’s Castle, Bail and Close’, SL, 2015
  • Page, Chris, The Rudgard Family and the Crown Brewery, Waterside South, in Andrew (Ed), ‘Pubs in Lincoln: A History. The City’s Inns, Public Houses, Beerhouses, Breweries and Maltings’, SOL, 2017
  • Ward, Brian, History of Public Houses in Market Rasen, LP&P 86, 2012
  • White, P R, The Maltings, Grimsby, LIA Vol 6, No.4, 1971
  • Wilson, C M (Ed), Bass Maltings, Sleaford, LHA 12, 1977
  • Wilson, C M (Ed), Sergeant’s Brewery, Brigg, LHA 13, 1978

Bass Maltings, Sleaford

All Saints Brewery, Stamford

MINES and QUARRIES in Lincolnshire : Bibliography
Books and other printed sources on mines and quarries in Lincolnshire

Building Stone
Some of the limestone in the upland area in the western part of the county is excellent building stone, especially at Ancaster and around Stamford, though most quarries are now closed. Lincoln Cathedral has its own historic quarry just north of the city. Inferior sources of limestone, often dug from small shallow pits, have been extensively used for building in the western half of the county.
 
Other local building stone include chalk, in the central and northern part of the Wolds, and greenstone (Spilsby sandstone), from the southern Wolds. Ironstone has also been used in some areas.
 
Lime kilns burning local chalk or limestone were located in several part of the county, producing lime for building work and agriculture. Chalk quarried in the northern Wolds has been the raw material for manufacture of whiting and cement.
 
Ironstone 
Deposits of iron ore were worked following the line of the limestone ridge (the Lincoln Edge) from West Halton to Scunthorpe in the north, from Lincoln to Barkston, and on to Harlaxton and Denton to the west of Grantham. To the south of Grantham, the ore was found in the Colsterworth and South Witham area. In addition, there were mines on the western scarp of the Lincolnshire Wolds at Claxby and Nettleton, between Market Rasen and Caistor.
 
Most working was by opencast methods, but there were no fewer than sixteen locations where the ironstone was mined underground. Opencast quarrying first started in Scunthorpe in 1860 and the first underground mine, at Claxby on the Wolds, went into production in 1868. The last mine closed in 1981, so mining was part of the County’s history for 121 years.
 
Books and other Printed Sources

Abbreviations: LHA – Lincolnshire History and Archaeology; LP&P – Lincolnshire Past & Present;
LIA – IA Group, Lincolnshire Local History Society; NL – SLHA Newsletter; LH – Lincolnshire Historian; SL – Survey of Lincoln
  • Birch, Neville, and Leverington, J, Claxby Ironstone Mines, LIA Vol 3, No.2, 1968
  • Birch, Neville (Ed), Sutterby Lime Kiln, LIA Vol 3, No.3, 1968
  • Brown, I J, Gazetteer of Ironstone Mines in the East Midands: Lincolnshire Section, LIA Vol 6, Nos.2&3, 1971
  • Czajkowski, Michael, The Kirkstead (Woodhall Spa) Coalfield, LHA 25, 2000
  • Ford, W. J., Lincolnshire Ironstone, Photographs (of Nettleton), Railway Bylines, Vol 5, Issue 9, August 2000
  • Gostick, Les, Coal in Lincolnshire [Quarrington], LP&P 50, 2003
  • Lyons, N J L, A Note on Limekilns, LIA Vol 5, No.2, 1970
  • Padley, Chris, Coal in Lincolnshire [Claxby], LP&P 51, 2003
  • Robinson, D N, Nettleton Iron Mine, Lincolnshire Life, April 1971
  • Squires, Stewart, The Underground Mines of Lincolnshire, in Start, D (Ed), 'All Things Lincolnshire', Society for Lincolnshire History and Archaeology, 2007
  • Squires, Stewart and Russell, Rex, Claxby Ironstone Mine, Lincolnshire, Lincolnshire History and Archaeology, Vol 34, 1999
  • Squires, Stewart, Claxby Ironstone Mine, Lincolnshire, Industrial Archaeology Notes, Lincolnshire History and Archaeology, Vol 38, 2003
  • Squires, Stewart, Visit to Nettleton Mines, Lincolnshire Past and Present, No 23, Spring 1996
  • Squires, Stewart, Nettleton Mines, in Robinson, D N (Ed), 'The Lincolnshire Wolds',  Lincolnshire County Council, 2009
  • Squires, Stewart, The Greetwell Ironstone Mines, in Walker, Andrew (Ed), 'Uphill Lincoln II', Survey of Lincoln, November 2010
  • Squires, Stewart, The Greetwell Ironstone Mines, Lincolnshire History and Archaeology, Vol 45, 2000
  • Squires, Stewart, Ironstone Mining in the Lincolnshire Wolds, [BOOK] SLHA, 2017
  • Squires, Stewart, The Walesby Shaft, LHA 42, 2007
  • Squires, Stewart, Castle Bytham Lime Kiln, LHA 45, 2010
  • Squires, Stewart, Greetwell Ironstone Quarry [and the Lincoln Bypass], LP&P 125, 2021
  • Tann, Geoff, Sand and Gravel Extraction, in Walker, Andrew (Ed), ‘Birchwood, Hartsholme and Swanpool, Lincoln’s Outer South-Western Suburbs’, SL, 2014
  • Tonks, Eric, The Ironstone Quarries of the Midlands, History, Operation and Railways, Part VIII, South Lincolnshire, 1991, and Part IX, Leicestershire, 1992, [BOOK] Amadeus Press
  • Turner, John, A Ruston & Hornsby Shale Planer, LHA 23 1988 
  • Upton, M J G, The Appleby Ironstone Mine, Lincolnshire Industrial Archaeology, Vol 6, No 4, 1971
  • Wright, Neil, Lincolnshire Towns and Industry, 1700 to 1914, History of Lincolnshire Committee, SLHA, Volume XI, 1982
  • Wynn, Peter, Nineteenth Century Chalk Quarrying and Lime Burning in the South-Eastern Lincolnshire Wolds, LHA 50. 2015

Clipsham quarry, near Stamford

Barrow on Humber, disused lime kiln

South Ferriby, cement works

Greetwell, ironstone quarry, 1933

PORTS and MARINE in Lincolnshire : Bibliography
Books and other printed sources on ports and marine topics in Lincolnshire

Lincolnshire has a long coastline but few natural harbours of any significance. Nevertheless, several ports have been created on river estuaries. Boston, close to the outfall of the Witham into the Wash, became a significant port in the medieval period but in modern times trade has declined considerably due to the limitation of vessel size on the Haven.
 
Other ports with good medieval trade were Wainfleet and Saltfleet, both no longer accessible by sea-going vessels. Trade at Grimsby also declined until the huge dock developments for the fishing industry were introduced in the mid-nineteenth century.
 
Spalding (on the Welland), Sutton Bridge (on the Nene) and Gainsborough (on the Trent) are examples of inland ports that thrived into the twentieth century.
 
The dock at Immingham on the Humber Estuary, created in 1912, has continued to grow in importance for a range of bulky imports.
 
Books and other printed sources

Abbreviations: LHA = Lincolnshire History and Archaeology (SLHA journal); LP&P = Lincolnshire Past & Present (SLHA Magazine); LIA = Lincolnshire Industrial Archaeology (forerunner of LHA, 1966-1973); LH = Lincolnshire Historian

Books
  • Chapman, Peter, Grimsby: The Story of the World’s Greatest Fishing Port, Breedon Books, 2002
  • Clapson, Rodney, A Lincolnshire Shipyard, Barton upon Humber, author, 2014
  • Crossland, G J & Turner, C E, Immingham, A History of the Deep-Water Port, T&C Publishing, 2006
  • Day, Nicholas J, Bricks and Sails: The John Franks (1757-1957), Grimsby Museums and Heritage Services, 1995
  • Jackson, Gordon, Grimsby and the Haven Company, Grimsby Public Libraries, 1971
  • Kirk, Martin, Ferries Across the Humber, Pen & Sward Transport, 2014
  • Lewis, M J T and Wright Neil, Boston as a Port, LIA, 1974
  • Stopper, Mark & Maltby, Roy, Boston Deep Sea Fisheries, Hutton Press, 1995
  • Taylor, Mike, Shipping on the Humber: The South Bank, Tempus, 2003
  • Wright, Neil R, Sutton Bridge: An Industrial History, SLHA 2009
  • --, Port of Grimsby & Immingham, Associated British Ports [publicity booklet], nd
  • --, Official Opening of Immingham Dock, July 22nd, 1912, [souvenir booklet]
Journal articles and book chapters
  • Almond, John, The Grand Sluice, Boston, LP&P 105, 2016
  • Birch, Neville, The Sloop ‘Annie’, LIA Vol 5, No.1, 1970
  • Crabtree, Andrew, Gainsborough Riverside Walk, LP&P 48, 2002
  • Craven, E, Lincoln Shipwrights, LIA Vol 8, No.3, 1973
  • Elder, Eileen, Ship-wrecked on the Lincolnshire Coast, LP&P 14, 1993
  • Gillett, E, Grimsby and the Haven Company, LH No.10, 1952
  • Hallett, Gladys C, The Smackbuilders of Grimsby, LP&P 6, 1991
  • Kirkham, Betty et al, Floods on the East Coast, 1953 [Sutton on Sea], LP&P 51, 2003
  • Redmore, Ken, Sutton Bridge Dock, LHA 48, 2013
  • Robinson, David, Putting into Port in ‘Lincolnshire on the Move’, SLHA, 2005
  • Waddington, H S, Towers and Hydraulic Installations at Grimsby Docks, LHA 15, 1980
  • Waddington, H S, New Holland Pier, LHA 17, 1982
  • Waddington, H S, Industrial Archaeology Visit to Humber Ports, LN 60 and 61, 1989
  • Wheeler, Rob, Boston Harbour Dues, Oats, Coal and the Budget of 1831, LHA 51, 2016
  • White, P R, The Riverhead at Grimsby, LIA Vol 3, No.4, 1968
  • Wilson, C M (Ed), Clapson’s Boatyard, Barton upon Humber, LHA 12, 1976
  • Wilson, John, Recruiting Immingham Docks Police 1916, LP&P 22, 1995
  • Wright, Neil R, Old Warehouses of Boston, LIA Vol 1, No.2, 1966
  • Wright, Neil R, Great Grimsby: A Town of Fishermen, LHA 21 1986

 Grimsby Dock Tower

Spiller's flour mill, Gainsborough

RADIO, RADAR and TELECOMMUNICATIONS in Lincolnshire : Bibliography
Books and other printed sources on radio, radar and telecommunications in Lincolnshire

This is a relatively small section and only two topics are mentioned here by way of introduction:  RAF Stenigot was part of the Chain Home radar system of the Second World War; and a number of what may be generally described as electronics companies have been based in Lincoln and to a lesser extent in other Lincolnshire towns.
 
Books and other printed sources

Abbreviations: LHA = Lincolnshire History and Archaeology (SLHA journal); LP&P = Lincolnshire Past & Present (SLHA Magazine); LIA = Lincolnshire Industrial Archaeology (forerunner of LHA, 1966-1973); SOL = Survey of Lincoln
  • Hopcroft, David, Humber Radio [Trusthorpe], LP&P 79. 2010
  • Lester, Chris, The ACE HIGH communications Station at former RAF Stenigot, LHA 32, 1997
  • Lester, Chris J, RAF Stenigot Chain Home Radar Station, LP&P 30, 1997
  • Osborne, Mike, Defending Lincolnshire: A Military History from Conquest to Cold War, The History Press, 2010
  • Redmore, Ken & Lester, Chris J, Charles Booth and Telstar, LP&P 85, 2011
  • Smith, Colin, West End High-Tech Industry, in Andrew (Ed), ‘Lincoln’s West End’, SL, 2008
  • Smith, Colin, Electronic Manufacturer in Lincoln to the 1980s and beyond, in Walker, Andrew, ‘Lincoln’s Engineering Industries, A Concise History, c.1780-1980s’, SOL, 2021 
  • Squires, Stewart, Empire Wireless Communication [Tetney, Burgh le Marsh], LP&P 10, 1993 
  • Stevenson, Peter, The Ether: Early Days of the Wireless, LP&P 85, 2011
  • Stevenson, Peter, Telegraph Poles, LP&P 107, 2017
  • --, Radio Bungalows at Trusthorpe, LP&P 73, 2008


Carlton Scroop, repeater station, Cold War microwave communications system

RAILWAYS in Lincolnshire: Bibliography
Books and other printed sources on railways in Lincolnshire

The first railway line in the County reached Lincoln, from Nottingham via Newark, in 1846. Within three years there were no less than 200 miles of line; by 1877 487 miles, 75% of the subsequent total, had been built. It was 1913 when the last part of the public network was completed, the route through Coningsby, Tumby Woodside, New Bolingbroke, Stickney and Midville. All that was built afterwards were the military lines to RAF Cranwell and to the army camp at Belton Park, both during the First World War, plus those to serve the needs of ironstone mining, mainly to the south and west of Grantham.

At the height of the railway age very few Lincolnshire villages were more than five miles from a station. The railway opened up tremendous opportunities – for employment, cheap travel and the transport of essential goods.

Railway closures are usually attributed to Dr Beeching and his 1963 report. In fact the rundown had started long before then. Passenger services were discontinued between Scunthorpe and Whitton in 1925, between Sleaford and Bourne in 1930 and on the Axholme Joint Railway in 1933. 1939 saw the closure of the branch to Spilsby and passengers could no longer travel between Bardney and Louth after 1951. The most significant national closure was that of the Midland and Great Northern Joint Railway, which had its western end in Lincolnshire, in 1959.

As street tramways were the urban equivalent of the railway this reading list also includes those at Lincoln, Grimsby and Cleethorpes.

Lincoln St Mark's Station

St Mark's Station, Lincoln
The earliest station in the county

Brocklesby Station

Brocklesby Station

 

Books and other sources

 

Abbreviations: LHA = Lincolnshire History and Archaeology (SLHA journal); LP&P = Lincolnshire Past & Present (SLHA Magazine); LIA = Lincolnshire Industrial Archaeology (forerunner of LHA, 1966-1973); LWRS = Lincolnshire Wolds Railway Society; SOL = Survey of Lincoln

 

A. LINCOLNSHIRE LINES, ROUTES and LOCATIONS

 

Books

  • Back, Michael, Branch Lines Around Spalding, M&GN Saxby to Long Sutton, Middleton Press, 2009
  • Back, Michael, Country Railway Routes, Peterborough to King’s Lynn, Part of the M&GN, Middleton Press, 2008
  • Beckwith, Ian, The History of Transport and Travel in Gainsborough, Gainsborough Urban District Council, 1971
  • Booth, A J, Peat Railways of Thorne and Hatfield Moors, Industrial Railway Society, 1998
  • Brown, Gordon H, Firsby, Portrait of a Country Junction, Published by the author, 1994
  • Brown, Guy F, Leo’s World, Leo Publishing, 2005. (stationmaster at Stickney and at Ulceby)
  • Cartwright, Adam & Stephen Walker, Boston: A Railway Town (part 1), KMS Books, 1987
  • Cossey, Frank, Grantham and Railways, BG Publications, 1983
  • Dow, George, Alford and Sutton Tramway, The Author, 1984
  • Franks, D L, The Stamford and Essendine Railway, Turntable Enterprises, 1971
  • Goode, C T, The Great Northern & Great Eastern Joint Railway (March to Doncaster), The Author, 1989
  • Hartley, K E, The Lincolnshire Coast Light Railway, LCLR, 1970
  • Henshaw, Alfred, The Great Northern Railway in the East Midlands, Nottingham – Grantham, Bottesford – Newark, Melton Mowbray, The Leicester Line and Ironstone Branches, RCTS, 2003
  • Judge, CW, The Axholme Joint Railway including The Goole & Marshland Light Railway and the Isle of Axholme Light Railway, Oakwood Press, 1994
  • Longbone, Bryan, Steam and Steel, An Illustrated History of Scunthorpe’s Railways, Irwell Press, 1996
  • Ludlam, A J and Herbert, W B, The Louth to Bardney Branch, Oakwood Press, Second Edition, 1987
  • Ludlam, A J, Railways to New Holland and the Humber Ferries, Oakwood Press, 1996
  • Ludlam, A J, Railways to Skegness including Kirkstead to Little Steeping, Oakwood Press, 1997
  • Ludlam, A J, The East Lincolnshire Railway, Oakwood Press, 1991
  • Ludlam, A J, The Horncastle and Woodhall Junction Railway, Oakwood Press, 1986
  • Ludlam, A J, The Lincolnshire Loop Line and the River Witham, Oakwood Press, 1995
  • Ludlam, A J, The Louth, Mablethorpe and Willoughby Loop, Oakwood Press, 1987
  • Ludlam, A J, The RAF Cranwell Railway, Oakwood Press, 1988
  • Ludlam, A J, The Spilsby to Firsby Railway, Oakwood Press, 1985
  • Ludlam, A J, Trains to the Lincolnshire Seaside: Mablethorpe, LWRS, 2014
  • Ludlam, A J, Trains to the Lincolnshire Seaside: Skegness, LWRS, 2014
  • Ludlam, A J, Trains to the Lincolnshire Seaside: Cleethorpes, LWRS, 2014
  • Ludlam, A J, A Lincolnshire Railway Centre: Grimsby, LWRS, 2016
  • Ludlam, A J, A Lincolnshire Railway Centre: Lincoln, LWRS, 2017
  • Ludlam, A J, A Lincolnshire Railway Centre: Immingham, LWRS, 2016
  • Ludlam, A J, A Lincolnshire Railway Centre: Grantham, LWRS, 2018
  • Ludlam, A J, A Lincolnshire Railway Centre: Louth, LWRS, 2014
  • Ludlam, A J, Branch Lines of East Lincolnshire: Louth to Bardney, LWRS, 2015
  • Ludlam, A J, Branch Lines of East Lincolnshire: Firsby to Spilsby, LWRS, 2015
  • Ludlam, A J, Branch Lines of East Lincolnshire: Woodhall Junction to Horncastle, LWRS, 2015
  • Pearson, R E, and Ruddock, J G, Lord Willoughby’s Railway, The Edenham Branch, Willoughby Memorial Trust, 1986
  • Priestly, Stephen & Watson, Neil, Boston's Railway Heritage, privately published, 2021
  • Rhodes, John, Bourne to Saxby, KMS Books, 1989
  • Rhodes, John, Bourne to Essendine, KMS Books, 1986
  • Rhodes, John, Great Northern Branch Lines to Stamford, KMS Books, 1988
  • Rhodes, John, The Midland & Great Northern Joint Railway, Ian Allan Ltd, 1982
  • Ruddock, J G and Pearson, R E, The Railway History of Lincoln, J Ruddock and Partners, 1974
  • Squires, Stewart and Hollamby, Ken, Building a Railway, Bourne to Saxby, Lincoln Record Society and SLHA, 2009
  • Squires, Stewart E, The Lincoln to Grantham Line via Honington, Oakwood Press, 1996
  • Stennett, Alan, The Railway its Builders Didn’t Want [Sleaford to Bourne], author, 2020
  • Vanns, Michael A, The Railways of Newark on Trent, Oakwood Press, 1999
  • Walker, Colin, Trails of Steam, Volume 6 – Trails through Grantham, Oxford Publishing Co, 1979. (photographs)
  • Walker, Stephen, Firsby to Wainfleet & Skegness, KMS Books, 1987
  • Walker, Stephen, The New Line, Kirkstead to Little Steeping including Lincoln to Skegness, KMS Books, 1985
  • Ward, Brian, A History of Market Rasen Railway Station, Rase Heritage Society and the Market Rasen Station Adoption Group. 2012
  • Wright, Neil R, The Railways of Boston, their origins and development, History of Boston Series Number 4, 1971

Articles and Book Chapters

  • Barton, B M J, Stamp End Railway Bridge, Lincoln, LHA 33, 1998
  • Betteridge, Stephen J, Lincoln, St Marks StationLHA Volume 20, 1985
  • Birch, Neville, Railway Crossings [Lincoln], in Hill, P R (Ed), Wigford: Historic Lincoln South of the River, SOL, 2000
  • Birch, Neville, Lincoln celebrates 150 years of Railwaysin LP&P No 25, Autumn 1996
  • Boyce, Douglas, Market Rasen: The Coming of the Railway, LP&P 33, 1998
  • Cartwright, Adam, The Arrival of the Railways [Lincoln], in Walker, Andrew (Ed), ‘George Boole’s Lincoln, 1815-49’, SOL, 2019
  • Chambers, J I, St Marks Station, Lincoln: an architectural commentLIA Volume VII, Number 1, 1972
  • Cossey, F, Cowbit StationLIA Volume III, Number 1, p9, 1968
  • Cossey, Frank, Lincoln Central Station, LIA Volume II, Number 1, p3, January 1967
  • George, Beryl, The Folly of our Forefathers: The High Street Level Crossings [Lincoln], in Walker, Andrew, ‘Lincoln’s City Centre South of the River Witham’, SOL, 2016
  • Jepsom, D M, Belton Park Military RailwayLIA Volume IV, Number 1, p10, January 1969
  • Knapp, Malcolm, Grantham; Dysart Road Railway BridgeLHA Volume 15, 1980
  • Lewis, Gerald A, Counter Drain Railway Bridge, Deeping St Nicholas, LHA 17, 1982
  • Mills Dennis, The People of Branston in 1881 and the Building of the Railway, LP&P 116, 2019
  • Moore, Nick, A Delightful Find: Leadenham on the Lincoln to Honington Railway, LP&P 106, 2016
  • Page, C J, On the Railway between Lincoln and SaxilbyLIA Volume V, Number 1, p10, January 1970
  • Raines, David, Railway Footbridges, South Common, LincolnLHA Volume 39, 2004
  • Raines, David, Wragby Station BuildingLHA Volume 41, 2006
  • Sleaford U3A Group, Wragby Railway Goods Yard, LHA 47, 2012
  • Squires, Stewart E, A Railway Remembered, (M&GN), in Lincolnshire Life, December 1989
  • Squires, Stewart, Donington on Bain – The Second Platform. LHA 48, 2013
  • Squires, Stewart, The Saga of Bardney Station, Back Track, Vol 35, No. 9, 2021
  • Sturman, Christopher, Laying the Foundation Stone of Louth Railway Station, LP&P No 21, Autumn 1995
  • Turland, Michael, Railway Building in 1881, LP&P No 64, Summer 2006
  • Waite, R L, Firsby Junction, signals, LIA Volume IV, Number 4, p61, November 1969
  • Wheeler, Rob, St Mark’s Station [Lincoln], in Walker, Andrew, ‘Lincoln’s City Centre South of the River Witham’, SOL, 2016
  • White, P R, and Tye, A, Waterways & Railways in Barton and New Holland, LIA, c.1970
  • Wright, N R, East Lincolnshire Railway; Crossing Keepers’ Cottages, LHA Volume 13, 1978
  • Wright, Neil, Boston Locomotive Depot, LIA Volume III, Number 4, p1, 1968
  • Wright, Neil and Birch, Maureen, Boston Tour, LIA Volume II, Number 2, p4, April 1967
 B. LINCOLNSHIRE COUNTYWIDE and AREAS OF THE COUNTY

  • Anderson, Paul, Railways of Lincolnshire, Irwell Press, 1992
  • Anderson, Paul, Lincolnshire Railway Memories, Irwell Press, 2007
  • Ashforth, Philip J, Bendall, Ian, Plant, Ken, Industrial Railways & Locomotives of Lincolnshire and Rutland, Industrial Railway Society, 2010
  • Bates, Chris, and Bairstow, Martin, Railways in North Lincolnshire, Martin Bairstow, 2005
  • Bennett, Patrick, Lincolnshire Railways, Amberely, 2021
  • Bennett, Stewart and Bennett Nicholas, An Historical Atlas of Lincolnshire, University of Hull Press, 1993, Railways and Docks, pp 112/3
  • Garraway Allan, Garraway Father and Son, Middleton Press, 1985. (Includes time spent working in Lincolnshire)
  • Garrod, Trevor, Lincolnshire by Rail, Railway Development Society, Lincolnshire Branch, 1985
  • Goode, C T, The Railways of North Lincolnshire, The Author, 1985
  • Griffiths, Roger and Hooper, John, Great Northern Railway Engine Sheds, Volume 1, Southern Area, Irwell Press, 2001. (Includes Grantham, Stamford, Holbeach, Bourne and Spalding)
  • Griffiths, Roger and Hooper, John, Great Northern Railway Engine Sheds, Volume 2, The Lincolnshire Loop, Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire, Irwell Press, 1996. (Includes Boston, Boston Sleeper Depot, Gainsborough, Horncastle, Lincoln, Louth, Mablethorpe Sleaford, Spilsby and Wainfleet)
  • Hill, Roger, and Vessey, Carey, British Railways Past and Present, 27, Lincolnshire, Past and Present Publishing, 1995
  • Hurst, Geoffrey, Great Central East of Sheffield, Volume 1, Milepost Publications 1989
  • King, P K and Hewins, D R, The Railways Around Grimsby, Cleethorpes, Immingham and North East Lincolnshire, Foxline Publishing, 1988
  • King, Paul, The Railways of North East Lincolnshire, Part 1, The Engine Sheds and their Allocations, Pyewipe Publications, 2018
  • King, Paul, The Railways of North East Lincolnshire, Part 2, Stations, Pyewipe Publications, 2019
  • King, Paul, The Railways of North East Lincolnshire, Part 3, More than Railways, Pyewipe Publications, 2020 
  • King, Paul, The Railways of North East Lincolnshire, Part 4, Comforts and Fish, Pyewipe Publications, 2022 
  • King, Paul, The Railways of North East Lincolnshire, Part 5, The World beyond Wrawby, Pyewipe Publications, 2022 
  • Padley, Chris, Laying Down the Lines, pp59-66 in Lincolnshire on the Move, Editors Jean Howard and Chris Lester, SLHA, 2005
  • Squires, Stewart E, The Lincolnshire Potato Railways, Oakwood Press, 2005 Second Edition
  • Squires, Stewart, Lincolnshire Railways, Lincolnshire Books, 1998
  • Squires, Stewart E, The Lost Railways of Lincolnshire, Castlemead Publications, 1988
  • Stennett, Alan, Lost Railways of Lincolnshire, Countryside Books, 2007
  • Stennett, Alan, Lincolnshire Railways, Crowood Press, 2016
  • Stennett, Alan, East Lincolnshire's Lost Railways, LWRS, 2020
  • Tonks, Eric, The Ironstone Quarries of the Midlands, History, Operation and Railways, Part VIII, South Lincolnshire, Runpast Publishing, 1991
  • Walker, Stephen, Great Northern Branch Lines in Lincolnshire, KMS Books, 1984
  • Wright, Neil, 2016: Railway Anniversary [170 years of Lincolnshire railways], LP&P 103, 2016

C. REGIONAL BOOKS and OTHER BOOKS WITH LINCOLNSHIRE CONTENT

  • Anderson, P Howard, Forgotten Railways, The East Midlands, David and Charles, 1973
  • Anderson, P. Howard, Regional Railway Handbooks No 1, The East Midlands, David and Charles, 1986
  • Balfour, G, The Armoured Train, its development and usage, Batsford, 1981
  • Bolger, Paul, BR Steam Motive Power Depots Eastern Region, Book Law Publications, 2009
  • Bradshaw’s July 1922 Railway Guide, New Edition, Guild Publishing, 1985. (Timetables)
  • Brodribb, John, LNER Country Stations, Ian Allan, 1988
  • Clinker, C R, Clinkers Register of Closed Passenger Stations and Goods Depots in England, Scotland and Wales 1830-1980, Avon-Anglia Publications, 1988
  • Crowther, G L, National Atlas showing Canals, Navigable Rivers, Mineral Tramroads, Railways and Street Tramways, Volume 6 Lincolnshire and East Anglia, GL Crowther, 1986
  • Gammell, C J, LNER Branch Lines, OPC, 1993
  • Gordon, D I, A Regional History of the Railways of Great Britain, Volume 5, Eastern Counties, David and Charles, 1968
  • Hewlett, H B, The Quarries, Ironstone, Limestone and Sand, Market Overton Industrial Railway Association, 1979 (first published 1935)
  • Joby, R S, Forgotten Railways, Volume 7, East Anglia, David and Charles, 1985
  • Jones, Robin, Beeching, The Inside Track, Mortons Media Group, 2012
  • Leleux, Robin, A Regional History of the Railways of Great Britain, Volume 9, The East Midlands, David and Charles, 1984
  • Welbourn, Nigel, Lost Lines Eastern, Ian Allan, 1995

D. RAILWAY COMPANIES WITH LINES IN LINCOLNSHIRE

  • Booth, Chris, The Lancashire, Derbyshire and East Coast Railway, Volume 2, Langwith Junction to Lincoln and the proposed route to Sutton on Sea, Fonthill, 2018
  • Clark, Ronald H, A short History of the Midland & Great Northern Joint Railway, Goose and Son, 1967
  • Cupit, J and Taylor, J, The Lancashire, Derbyshire & East Coast Railway, Oakwood Press, 1966
  • Dickenson, M J, The Short Term Effects of the GNR on the Economy of south west Kesteven 1850-1852, in Lincolnshire History and Archaeology, Volume 6, 1971
  • Digby, Nigel J L, A Guide to the Midland & Great Northern Joint Railway, Ian Allan, 1993
  • The District Controllers View, the Midland and Great Northern Joint, Xpress Publishing, 2009
  • Dow, George, Great Central Volume I, The Progenitors 1813-1863, Locomotive Publishing, 1959
  • Dow, George, Great Central Volume II, Dominion of Watkin 1864-1899, Locomotive Publishing, Second Edition 1967
  • Dow, George, Great Central Volume III, Fay Sets the Pace 1900-1922, Ian Allan, 1965
  • Essery, Bob, The Midland & Great Northern Joint Railway and its Locomotives, Lightmoor Press, 2009
  • Franks, D L, Great Northern and London & North Western Joint Railway, Turntable Enterprises, 1964. (includes Grantham to Leicester train service)
  • Nock, O S, The Great Northern Railway, Ian Allan, 1958
  • Wrottesley, John, The Great Northern Railway, Volume I, Origins and Development, Batsford, 1979
  • Wrottesley, John, The Great Northern Railway, Volume II, Expansion and Competition, Batsford, 1979
  • Wrottesley, John, The Great Northern Railway, Volume III, Twentieth Century to Grouping, Batsford, 1981

E. BOOKS OF PHOTOGRAPHS WITH LINCOLNSHIRE EXAMPLES

  • Anderson, V R and Fox, G K, A Pictorial Record of Midland Railway Architecture, Oxford Publishing Co, 1985
  • Beckett, MD and Hemnell, D R, M&GN in Action, Becknell Books, 1981
  • Beckett, MD and Hemnell, D R, M&GN in Focus, Becknell Books, 1980
  • Burgess Neil, Lincolnshire’s Lost Railways, Stenlake Publishing, 2007
  • Clark, Ronald H, Scenes from the Midland & Great Northern Railway, Moorland Publishing, 1978.
  • Croft, Eric, Lincolnshire Railway Stations on old picture postcards, Reflections of a Bygone Age, 1993.
  • Croft, Eric, Railways in Lincolnshire on old picture postcards, Reflections of a Bygone Age, 2010,
  • Greening, David, Steam in the East Midlands, Becknell Books, 1982
  • Herbert, W B, and Robinson, D N, Lincolnshire Railways in Camera Volume One, Quotes Limited, 1986
  • Lambert, Anthony J, East Midlands Branch Line Album, Ian Allan Ltd, 1978.
  • Wells, P H, Steam in the East Midlands, Ian Allan Ltd, 1985.

F. LINCOLNSHIRE TRAMWAYS

  • Bett, Wingate Henry, Gillham, J C, Price, John Horace, Tramways of the East Midlands, Light Railway Transport League, 1979
  • Hodson, Maurice, High Street to Bracebridge for One Penny: Lincoln’s Trams, in Walker, Andrew (Ed), ‘South-East Lincoln: Canwick Road, South Common, St Catherine’s and Bracebridge’, SOL, 2011
  • Lucas, William Harold, Memories of Grimsby and Cleethorpes Transport, Turntable Publications, 1974
  • Oppitz, Leslie, Tramways Remembered East Anglia, East Midlands and Lincolnshire, Countryside Books, 1992
  • Price, J H, The Tramways of Grimsby, Immingham & Cleethorpes, Light Rail Transit Association, undated
  • Robinson, David N, Lincolnshire Tramways in Camera, Quotes Ltd, 1991
  • Squires, Stewart, Country House Tramways: Belton House, Harlaxton Manor and Stoke Rochford, LHA 47, 2012
  • Unknown, A Tramway between Brigg and Lincoln, LP&P No 20, Summer 1995
  • Unknown, The Tramways of South Yorkshire & Humberside, Light Railway Transport League, nd 

G. OTHER ASPECTS OF RAILWAYS IN LINCOLNSHIRE

  • Ashberry, Jez, Lincoln University Library – The Great Central Warehouse, LP&P No 62, Winter 2006/7
  • Birch, N C, Barnetby Maltings, in LIA Volume V, Number 1, p14, January 1970
  • Birch, N C, The Great Northern Hotel and Stables, Lincoln, LIA Volume IV, Number 3, p47, August 1969
  • Neller, Ruth, Skegness: A History of Railway Excursions, LHA 46, 2011
  • Padley, Chris, The Lady and the Engine Driver [Barnetby], LP&P 94, 2014
  • Page, Chris, Boultham Sidings [Lincoln], in Walker, Andrew (Ed), ‘Birchwood, Hartsholme and Swanpool, Lincoln’s Outer South-Western Suburbs’, SL, 2014
  • Ruddock, J G and Pearson, R E, Clayton Wagons Ltd, J Ruddock Ltd, 1989
  • Squires, Stewart, Sack Hire and the railways (Chapter 3.1); Potato Railways (Chapter 5.1); Fish and Chips (Chapter 6) in Growing Better: Lincolnshire and the Potato, Edited by Squires, Stewart and Wilson, Catherine, SLHA, 2011
  • Squires, Stewart, Evedon Siding and the Slea Navigation, LHA 44, 2009
  • Squires, Stewart, Steppingstone Bridge, Spalding, LHA 46, 2011
  • Squires, Stewart, Woodhall Junction Urinal, LHA 46, 2011
  • Squires, Stewart, How did Twenty get its Name?, LP&P 122, 2020
  • Vanns, Michael A, An Illustrated History of Great Northern Railway Signalling, OPC, 2000
  • Waddington, H S, Barnetby, Re-use of stone sleepers, LHA Volume 23, 1988
  • Wall, Tony, Stone Sleepers at Lincoln, St Marks Station, LHA Volume 19, 1984
  • Wright, Neil, A Railway Tease (a hoax advert for a railway project in 1845), LP&P No 38, Winter 1999/2000
  • Wright, Neil R, Lincolnshire Towns and Industry 1700 – 1914, History of Lincolnshire Committee, 1982

Stewart Squires, 2013

ROADS and BRIDGES in Lincolnshire : Bibliography
Books and other printed sources on roads and bridges in Lincolnshire

Like most counties, Lincolnshire has a few ancient trackways and drove roads which are still discernible today.
 
Two major Roman roads entered the county: the Fosse Way and Ermine Street, which are followed closely by today’s A46 (south of Lincoln) and A15 respectively. Small stretches of Roman road can also be traced in roads and bridle ways in various parts of the county.
 
As elsewhere in England, turnpike trusts were created in the second half of the eighteenth century and the county’s towns became linked by an improved road network. 
 
Motorways of the modern era have generally by-passed the county. The exception is the M180 which runs westwards from Grimsby via Scunthorpe towards the North Midlands and Yorkshire. The A1, crossing the south-west corner of the county, close by Stamford and Grantham, is the only other major modern road that enters Lincolnshire.
 
Lincolnshire has an interesting range of bridges, though few are of national standing. Small medieval packhorse bridges survive wholly or in part at West Rasen, Scredington and Utterby.
 
The masonry bridge over the Trent at Gainsborough dates from 1790, and there are several iron bridges, in various styles, built in the 1830s, crossing the Ancholme. Two graceful cast iron footbridges, slightly earlier in date, are found north of Boston across the Maud Foster drain.
 
Three twentieth-century bridges are worthy of mention: the Scherzer rolling lift bridge over the Trent at Keadby (1912-16); Nunn’s Bridge over a drain at Fishtoft, Britain’s first pre-stressed concrete bridge (1947); and the Humber Bridge at Barton, the world’s longest span suspension bridge when built (1981).
 
Books and other printed sources

Abbreviations: LHA = Lincolnshire History and Archaeology (SLHA journal); LP&P = Lincolnshire Past & Present (SLHA Magazine); LIA = Lincolnshire Industrial Archaeology (forerunner of LHA, 1966-1973); SOL = Survey of Lincoln

ROADS 
  • Birch, Neville, Stamford’s Industrial Past: An Untold Story, (Book) SLHA, 2021
  • Birch, Neville, Some of Grimsby’s Carriers, LIA Vol 6, Nos.2&3, 1971
  • Bower, David, Lost Roads of Lincoln, LP&P 83, 2011
  • Clapson, Rodney & Stockdale, Darren, Roads, Coaches and Carriers of Barton before 1900, Fathom Writers Press, 2009
  • Driver, P, The Turnpike Roads of the Algarkirk, Fosdyke and Sutterton Area, LIA Vol 1, No.3, 1966
  • Downs, Angela, Toll Bar Keeper on the Turnpike [Brigg], LP&P 99, 2015
  • Downs, Angela, Toll Bar Keeper, John Farrow [Wragby], LP&P 102, 2015
  • Hardy, John, Reminiscences of the Open Road: Tricycling to London with John Fowler, LHA 45, 2010
  • Hewis, Chris, The A57 from Saxilby to Dunham, LP&P 88, 2012
  • Hunt, W M, The Promotion of Tattershall Bridge and the Sleaford to Tattershall Turnpike, LHA 31, 1996
  • Squires, Stewart, Dickens and Lincolnshire Roads, LP&P 87, 2012
  • Surry, Nigel, Traffic on a Lincolnshire Road 1838-39: Newstead Toll Bar, LIA Vol 4, No.4, 1969
  • White P R, Roads Replace Railways, in Mills, Dennis R (Ed), ‘Twentieth Century Lincolnshire’, SLHA, 1989
  • White, P R, Brigg Turnpike Trust in the Early Years, LIA Vol 5, No.1, 1970
  • Wright, Neil R, Paving the Way, in Lester, Chris & Howard, Jean (Eds), ‘Lincolnshire on the Move’, SLHA, 2005
  • Wright, Neil R, Transport in the Wolds, in Robinson, David N, ‘The Lincolnshire Wolds’, Windgather Press, 2009

BRIDGES
  • Barton, Barry, Bridging the Gap, in Lester, Chris & Howard, Jean (Eds), ‘Lincolnshire on the Move’, SLHA, 2005
  • Barton, Barry, Tattershall Bridge, LHA 32, 1997
  • Barton, Barry, Uffington Bridge – a Conundrum, LP&P 12, 1993
  • Barton, Barry, Bishopbridge, West Rasen, LP&P 13, 1993
  • Birch, Neville (Ed), Lincoln’s Bridges: A Survey, LIA Vol 4, No.1, 1969
  • Hodson, Maurice, Four Bridges and Sincil Dyke, in Walker, Andrew, ‘Lincoln’s City Centre South of the River Witham’, SOL, 2016
  • Hunt, W M, The Promotion of Tattershall Bridge and the Sleaford to Tattershall Turnpike, LHA 31, 1996
  • Lester, C J, Horkstow Bridge: The Chain Anchorages, LHA 39, 2004
  • Lewis, M J T, Horkstow Bridge, LIA Vol 8, No.1, 1973
  • Lewis, M J T, Thoughts on the Roman Bridge at Lincoln, LHA 47, 2012
  • Lewis, M J T, Dunham Bridge: A Memorial History, (Book) SLHA, 1978
  • Page, Chris, The High Bridge [Lincoln], in Walker, Andrew, ‘Lincoln’s City Centre: North of the Witham’, SOL, 2015
  • Robinson, David, Lincolnshire Boats and Bridges in Camera, (Book) Quotes Limited, 1989
  • Sheehan, N J, Newstead Bridge, Stamford, LP&P 118, 2019
  • Squires, Stewart, River Trent Bridge, Gainsborough, LP&P 64, 2006
  • Squires, Stewart, Bridges in the Neighbourhood [South-East Lincoln], in Walker, Andrew (Ed), ‘South-East Lincoln: Canwick Road, South Common, St Catherine’s and Bracebridge’, SOL, 2011
  • Squires, Stewart, The Brayford Bridges, in Walker, Andrew (Ed), ‘Brayford Pool: Lincoln’s Waterfront through Time’, SOL, 2012
  • Wilkinson, Alan J, Bishopbridge stone plinth, LP&P 14, 1993
  • Wilson, C M (Ed), Stamp End Lock Footbridge, LHA 12, 1976
  • Wilson, C M (Ed), Tattershall Bridge, LHA 13, 1978
  • Wright, Neil R, The Iron Bridges of Boston, LIA Vol 7, No.1, 1972

West Rasen, packhorse bridge, 14th century

Horkstow, suspension bridge, 1834

Barton-upon-Humber, Humber Bridge, 1981

STREET FURNITURE in Lincolnshire : Bibliography
Books and other printed sources on street furniture in Lincolnshire

This topic embraces lamp posts, direction posts, street name signs, milestones, drain covers, inspection covers, bollards, railings, pillar boxes, phone boxes, letter boxes, house number plates, boot scrapers, benches and other permanent features of town streets and country roads or added to the 'public face' of buildings.
 
Some of these items are one-offs and were made locally, but generally the design of street furniture became standardised in the nineteenth century and sizeable firms were responsible for the manufacture of these elements of the street scene.
 
In Lincolnshire several iron founders specialised in products ranging from drain covers to street signs. Richard Duckering’s castings can be found throughout Lincoln, home of his foundry, and also in streets in many parts of the county.
 
Other nineteenth-century manufacturers of note include Thomas Gibson (Stamford), James Coultas (Grantham), E H Smith (Brigg), Fowler & Holden (Grimsby), W Rainforth (Lincoln), F Grounsell (Louth) and C S Peatfield (Market Rasen). Many other names – iron founders, builders and local authorities – are also cast in inspection covers and similar items.
 
In the twentieth century local firms producing castings for street furniture include Kesteven Castings (Caythorpe), Beevor Foundry (Lincoln), Rundle (New Bolingbroke) and Scunthorpe Foundry.
 
Books and other sources 
 
Abbreviations: LHA = Lincolnshire History and Archaeology (SLHA journal); LP&P = Lincolnshire Past & Present (SLHA Magazine); LIA = Lincolnshire Industrial Archaeology (forerunner of LHA, 1966-1973), SOL = Survey of Lincoln

  • Birch, Neville, An 1857 Letter Box at Gosberton, LIA Vol 6, No.1, 1971
  • Carroll, Ray, Lincolnshire Roads and Road Signs, LP&P 85, 2011
  • Duckering, Mark, Richard Duckering of Lincoln, in Redmore Ken (Ed), 'Ploughs, Chaffcutters and Steam Engines', SLHA, 2007
  • Duckering, Mark, Duckering's Iron Foundry, 1845-1962in Walker, Andrew, ‘Lincoln’s Engineering Industries, A Concise History, c.1780-1980s’, SOL, 2021 
  • Healey, Hilary, Cast Iron Milestones, LP&P 13, 1993
  • Healey, Hilary, Milestones at Fosdyke, LP&P 46, 2002
  • Healey, Hilary, Lincolnshire Letter Boxes, LP&P 56, 2004
  • Knight, Michael, Lincolnshire’s Milestones: Heritage Worth Preserving, LP&P 114, 2018
  • Lester, Chris, Guidepost at Branston Mere, LP&P 46, 2002
  • Rundle, Alan, John H Rundle of New Bolingbroke, in Redmore Ken (Ed), 'Ploughs, Chaffcutters and Steam Engines', SLHA, 2007
  • Start, David, Road Signs in Lincolnshire, LP&P 58, 2005
  • Ward, Arthur, Local Street Furniture Made in Lincoln, in Walker, Andrew, ‘Lincoln’s Engineering Industries, A Concise History, c.1780-1980s’, SOL, 2021 
  • Wilson, Catherine, Street Furniture of Motherby Hill, Lincoln, LHA 15, 1980


VEHICLES in Lincolnshire : Bibliography
Books and other printed sources on carts, wagons, bicycles, cars, lorries and buses in Lincolnshire

Wheelwrights were to be found in the towns and larger villages and were usually small businesses mostly engaged in repair work and small projects. Some grew to become makers of fine carts and wagons (and in some instances moffreys) and others, like Hayes (Stamford) and Esberger (Louth) became noted carriage makers.
 
Several Lincolnshire towns were home to cycle making businesses in the last two decades of the nineteenth century and some of these went on to make motorcycles on a modest scale. Baines (Gainsborough), Lincoln Elk (Lincoln) and Elswick Hopper (Barton) were the most notable firms.
 
Cars of reasonable quality were made by Pick (Stamford), Kendall (Grantham), Rose (Gainsborough), Lloyd (Grimsby), Richardson (Saxilby) and Ruston (Lincoln). Racing cars of national significance (ERA, BRM) were made in or near Bourne.
 
Other motor vehicles made in Lincolnshire included buses by Rainforth (Lincoln) and Thompson (Louth); dumper trucks by Aveling Barford (Grantham); and lorries by Clayton Wagons (Lincoln).
 
Books and other printed sources

Abbreviations: LHA = Lincolnshire History and Archaeology (SLHA journal); LP&P = Lincolnshire Past & Present (SLHA Magazine); LIA = Lincolnshire Industrial Archaeology (forerunner of LHA, 1966-1973); SL = Survey of Lincoln

Carts, Wagons and Carriages
  • Birch, NevilleBrownlow’s Carriage Works, Grantham, LIA Vol 6, No.4, 1971 
  • Cartwright, Adam, Rainforths of LIncoln, LHA 45, 2010
  • Cooke, Hugh, John Cooke and Sons of Lincoln, in Redmore, Ken (Ed), 'Ploughs, Chaff Cutters and Steam Engines', SLHA 2007
  • Cox, Ralph, Hayes & Son, [catalogue, c.1867], Stamford Properties Ltd, 1970
  • Key, Michael, A Century of Coachbuilding [Hayes of Stamford], Paul Watkins, 1990
  • Stevenson Peter, Grantham: An Industrial trail [Boyall's coachworks], SLHA, 2007
Bicycles and Motorcycles
  • Basquill, Sara, Objects of Life: The Lincoln Elk [motorcycle]LP&P 122, 2020
  • Land, NigelElswick Hopper of Barton-upon-Humber, Fathom Writers Press, 2010
  • Land, Nigel, Barton Cycle Works: 1880-1900, in Bryant, G F and Land Nigel 'Bricks, Tiles and Bicycles in Barton before 1900', Barton WEA, 2007
  • Pullen, StephenThe Motor Makers of Lincolnshire, Vol 1 (motorcycles, cars and lorries), Tucann, 2007 
Cars, Lorries and Buses 
  • Brooks, Gordon, Motor Car Manufacturers of Lincolnshire: 1. Pick Motor Cars, LIA Vol 5, No.2, 1970
  • Brooks, GordonMotor Car Manufacturers of Lincolnshire: 2. Lincoln Motor Cars, LIA Vol 5, No.4, 1970
  • Carle, AnnabelLincoln Motor Manufacturing Company, LP&P 73, 2008
  • Carle, Annabel et alThe Story of FE1, First Registration Number, LP&P 75, 2009
  • Carle, Annabel et alFrom Penny Farthing to Daimler, LP&P 76, 2009
  • Carle, Annabel et al, Gilbert & Son and Richardson, LP&P 78, 2010 
  • Cartwright, Adam, Rainforths of Lincoln, LHA 45, 2010
  • Hunt, Abigail, Ruston’s c.1900-1945: Planes, Trains and Automobiles, in Walker, Andrew, ‘Lincoln’s Engineering Industries, A Concise History, c.1780-1980s’, SL, 2021 
  • Key, MichaelPick of Stamford, Paul Watkins, 1994
  • McGregor, Michael, Raymond Mays of Bourne, author, 1994
  • Padley, Chris, De Dion Bouton Car [Market Rasen], LP&P 80, 2010
  • Pullen, Stephen, Hair’s Haulage History, LP&P 79, 2010
  • Pullen, Stephen, The Motor Makers of Lincolnshire, Vol 1 (motorcycles, cars and lorries), Tucann, 2007
  • Redmore, Ken & George, Beryl, Unusual Building in Louth: F M Thompson, Coachbuilders, LP&P 106, 2016
  • Wall, Tony, Building the Bangers and Boneshakers in 'Lincolnshire on the Move', SLHA, 2005


 South Lincolnshire wagon, (Doddington Hall Collection) 

 

Elswick Cycles, Barton-upon-Humber

 

Ruston open tourer model 'Twenty', 1923

WATER SUPPLY in Lincolnshire : Bibliography
Books and other printed sources on water supply in Lincolnshire

With an average annual rainfall of only 640 mm (25 inches), Lincolnshire is one of the driest areas of the country, and water supplies are limited. During the early years many settlements were located along the ‘spring lines’ of the limestone escarpment of the Lincolnshire Heathlands and the chalk Wolds where there was good access to a clean water supply. The lower lying settlements relied mainly on the underground sands and river gravels into which shallow wells - possibly with hand-operated pumps - were sunk.
 
During the Roman period the uphill area of Lincoln was supplied from a spring about 2 kms to the north-east from where water was transferred uphill (by a means not fully understood). During the medieval period, monasteries and abbeys in the county developed their own water supplies. At Lincoln, Grantham and Stamford, these were extended to public conduits (masonry constructed draw-off points) for use by the local population.
 
The growth of heavy industry in the nineteenth century and corresponding increases in the urban population, brought the need for larger piped water supplies. New sources, often from further afield, were developed for towns such as Lincoln (at Boultham), Grimsby (Littlecoates), Boston (Revesby), Grantham (Saltersford), Horncastle (Cawkwell), Louth (Hubbards Hill).
 
Many of these new schemes involved the construction of reservoirs, sand filters, storage tanks, and the installation of steam pumping equipment, together with the laying of long lengths of pipelines. In the countryside at this time, many of the larger farmsteads had waterwheels or hydraulically operated ram pumps installed to lift water from streams and water courses.
 
During the twentieth century, local water supply systems were developed to meet increasing demand and to improve water quality. Following the typhoid outbreak in Lincoln in 1904/05, a new water supply was obtained from the sandstone boreholes at Elkesley in Nottinghamshire. During the 1960s, new water supply schemes were commissioned at Covenham and Cadney / Elsham to meet the needs of the fast-growing industries along the Humber Bank. In the 1980s a new supply was sourced from limestone boreholes at West Pinchbeck for Boston.
 
By the mid-1960s, all Lincolnshire settlements were connected to the public water supply system, except for a few isolated farmsteads which still operated their own private systems. Apart from the surface water supplies from Covenham (for Grimsby), Elsham (Scunthorpe) and Saltersford (Grantham), all drinking water supplies were obtained from underground aquifers and spring sources. These underground aquifers include the Lincolnshire chalk and limestones and the Nottinghamshire Bunter sandstones.
 
Over the course of the twentieth century, all of the former water companies within the County were dissolved, with responsibility being taken over firstly by the local authorities, then six joint water boards (early 1960s), followed by a regional water authority (1974), before the privatisation of all water undertakings in 1989. Today, all water supplies in the historic County of Lincolnshire come under the operational control and administration of Anglian Water Services plc.
 
Books and other printed sources

Abbreviations: LHA = Lincolnshire History and Archaeology (SLHA journal); LP&P = Lincolnshire Past & Present (SLHA Magazine); LIA = Lincolnshire Industrial Archaeology (forerunner of LHA, 1966-1973); SOL = Survey of Lincoln
  • Barton B M J, St John’s Hospital Water Tower, Bracebridge Heath, LHA 32, 1997
  • Healey, Hilary, Quadring Water Tower, LP&P 38, 1999
  • Jones, Michael J, The Well at St Paul in the Bail [Lincoln], in Walker, Andrew (Ed), ‘Lincoln’s Castle, Bail and Close’, SOL, 2015
  • Lester, Chris & Redmore, Ken, Water Supply at Grange Farm, Langton by Spilsby, LHA 45, 2010
  • Mills, Joan & Dennis, The Holy Well and Conduit at Canwick, LP&P 23, 1996
  • Neller, Ruth, Mablethorpe Water Tower, LP&P 38, 1999
  • Newton, Eric D, Gunby Hall Water Supply, LHA 47, 2012
  • Newton, Eric D, Withcall Farm Water Supply, LHA 47, 2012
  • Newton, Eric D, Two Pumped Water Supply Systems for the Gardens of Scawby Hall, LHA 51, 2016
  • Newton, Eric D, Black Springs Water Supply Plant, Thoresway, LHA 51 2016
  • Newton, Eric D, A Lincolnshire Waterfall [Stoke Rochford], LP&P 91, 2013
  • Newton, Eric D, Drilling for Water: W G Hamblett and Son of Nettleham, LP&P 124, 2021
  • Pacey, Trevor E, To Fetch a Pail of Water [Lincoln], (Book) Tucann, nd
  • Redmore, Ken & Lester, Chris, Tathwell Lake and Water Supply, LHA 39, 2004
  • Squires, Stewart, Potterhanworth Water Tower, LP&P 66, 2007
  • Squires, Stewart, Roadside Water Supply [Middle Rasen], LP&P 93, 2013
  • Wheeler, Rob, The Origins of Hartsholme Lake, in Walker, Andrew (Ed), ‘Birchwood, Hartsholme and Swanpool, Lincoln’s Outer South-Western Suburbs’, SOL, 2014
  • Wheeler, Rob, The Building of Skellingthorpe Reservoir, in Brook Shirley et al (Eds), ‘Lincoln Connections: Aspects of City and County since 1700’, SLHA, 2011
  • Willington, D J, Lincoln City Waterworks & Henry Teague, LP&P 30, 1997
  • Wilson. Catherine (Ed), Elkesley Water Pumping Station, LHA 12 1976
  • --, Boultham Waterworks, Sincil Drain [photos], LP&P 92, 2013

Oxcombe, wind pump 

Branston, water wheel and pump

Luddington, water tower

WINDMILLS and WATERMILLS in Lincolnshire : Bibliography
Books and other printed sources on windmills and watermills in Lincolnshire

Lincolnshire is fortunate in the number of tower windmills which survive; a very small number still operate commercially, and a few grind grain as part of a visitor experience. At one time there were hundreds of such mills across the county and the familiar windmill ‘stumps’ and conversions to dwellings indicate how common they once were. Only one post mill (Wrawby) and one smock mill (Dyke, near Bourne), out of many, stand today.

With relatively flat and open countryside watermills have been less common and generally less important in Lincolnshire than windmills, though there are several interesting examples. Few of the mills retain their machinery today and fewer still are in working condition.
 
Machinery operating on very similar principles to grain mills has been applied to several other operations in the county. Drainage mills - tower structures with wind-powered machinery to drive scoop wheels – were once widely used for draining the fens. Mills were also used for fulling cloth, grinding bones and creating whiting from chalk.
 
Books and other printed sources

Abbreviations: LHA = Lincolnshire History and Archaeology (SLHA journal); LP&P = Lincolnshire Past & Present (SLHA Magazine); LIA = Lincolnshire Industrial Archaeology (forerunner of LHA, 1966-1973); SL = Survey of Lincoln; LL = Lincolnshire Life; TIMS = The International Molinological Society
 
Articles about Lincolnshire mills appearing in the Lincolnshire Mills Group Magazine are separately listed

Books 
  • Biggadike, John, The Story of Moulton Windmill, Moulton Windmill, 2014
  • Bonwick, Luke, Sneath’s Mill, Lutton Gowts, The Mill Archive, 2018
  • Brown, R J, Windmills of England, Robert Hale, 1976
  • Croft, Eric, Lincolnshire Windmills in Old Picture Postcards, Reflections of a Bygone Age, nd
  • Curtis, Joyce M, Windmills in Pinchbeck, Lincolnshire, SLHA 2014
  • Dolman, Peter, Lincolnshire Windmills, A Contemporary Survey, Lincolnshire County Council,1986 
  • Hanson, Martin & Waterfield, James, Boston Windmills, authors, nd 
  • Hewitt, S Frank, Hewitt’s Windmill, Heapham, the author, nd
  • Jager, David, Windmills of Lincolnshire Surviving into the 21th Century, Heritage Lincolnshire, 2007
  • Pocklington, A R, Heckington’s Magnificent Eight-Sailed Windmill, Friends of Heckington Mill, 2000
  • Sass, Jon A, Saundersons: Millwrights & Engineers of Louth, The Mills Archive, 2017
  • Sass, Jon A, Windmills of Lincolnshire, Stenlake Publishing, 2012
  • Tinley, Ruth, Dusty Almonds, author, 1995
  • Wailes, Rex, Lincolnshire Windmills, Part 1 and 2, Friends of Heckington Mill, 1991
  • Watson, Michael, Lincolnshire Mill Families, author, 2017
  • Wilson, Gordon (Ed), Recollections of a Lincolnshire Miller, Robert Wilson of Huttoft, Louth NALS, 1994
  • Wilson, Catherine (Ed), A Checklist of Windmill Paintings by Karl Wood, Lincolnshire Museum Occasional Papers, 1982
  • --, Wrawby Post Mill [guidebook], c.1970
  • --, History & Guide to the Maud Foster Windmill, Boston, 2002

Journal articles and book chapters 
  • Beckwith, Ian S, Londonthorpe Mill, LIA Vol 2 No.4, 1967
  • Birch, Neville, Claypole Post Mill, LIA Vol 7, No.2, 1972
  • Chambers, J I, & Wilson, C M, Dickinson’s Mill, Lincoln, LIA Vol 7, No. 2, 1972
  • Clowes, David, Sneath’s Mill, Lutton Gowt, LP&P 83, 2011
  • Cradock, Robin, Mills and Milling [Witham Marsh], LIA Vol 4, No.3, 1969
  • Frankish, W H, My Reminiscences of Albion Mills, Brayford, LIA Vol 8, No3, 1973
  • Hallgarth, W E R, The Lincolnshire Miller and Millwright, LL Vol 5, No.4, 1965
  • Hallgarth, W E R, Behold! A Giant am I,[Lincolnshire Windmills], LL Vol 11, No.9, 1971
  • Hallgarth, W E R, Watermills of Lincolnshire, LL Vol 4, No.2, 1964
  • Hallgarth, W E R, Sunset of the Mills, LL Vol 1, No.3, 1961
  • Hollamby, Ken et al, Holdingham Watermill, LHA 50, 2015
  • Holm, Stuart, Humber Mill, Barton upon Humber, LHA 13, 1978
  • Moore, Colin, An English Country Millwright at the end of the Nineteenth Century, [Thompson of Alford] TIMS 97, 2018
  • Mouncey, G & Sass, Jon A, Reeson’s Mill at Hibaldstow, LIA Vol 8, No.2, 1973
  • Osborne, Les, Ellis’s Mill [Lincoln], in Walker, Andrew, ‘Uphill Lincoln I: Burton Road, Newport and the Ermine Estate’, SOL, 2009
  • Page, C and Upton, M J, Messingham Mill, LHA 15, 1980
  • Page, Chris, Mills in the Parish of St Peter-at-Gowts, in Walker, Andrew, ‘Lincoln’s City Centre South of the River Witham’, SOL, 2016
  • Pawley, Simon, Grist to the Mill (Early mills in Sleaford), LHA 23 1988
  • Pawley, Simon, A Checklist of Lincolnshire Watermills, author, 2004
  • Raines, David and Sleaford U3A Group, King’s Mill, Stamford, LHA 39, 2004
  • Sass, Jon A, Waltham Windmill, LIA Vol 2, No.2, 1967
  • Sass, Jon A, Sneath’s Mill, Long Sutton, LHA 13, 1978
  • Sass, Jon A, A Former Flax Mill, Claypole, LHA 14, 1979
  • Sass, Jon A, Moulton Mill, LHA 34, 1999
  • Sass, Jon A, Lincolnshire’s Last Smock Mill [Dyke], LHA 36, 2001
  • Sass, Jon A, Thorganby Hall Waterwheel, LHA 40, 2005
  • Sass, Jon A, Kingsgarth Mill, Barton upon Humber and the Pioneering Work of Robert Sutton, TIMS 101, 2020
  • Squires, Stewart, Windmills and Wildlife [Corringham], LP&P 20, 1995
  • Squires, Stewart, Former Water Mill at 1 Lincoln Road, Branston, LHA 46, 2011
  • Tinley, Ruth, Crown Mill, Lincoln, LP&P 36, 1999
  • Tinley, Ruth, Le Tall’s Mill, Lincoln, NL 46, 1985
  • Waterfield, Tom, Maud Foster Windmill, LHA 25, 1990
  • Watson, Colin, Young’s Watermill, Kirkby Green, LHA 18, 1983
  • Watts, Martin, Manor Mill (Wright’s Mill), Scopwick, LHA 18, 1983
  • Wilson, Catherine M, Aubourn Watermill, LHA 13, 1978
  • Wilson, Catherine M, Burgh le Marsh Windmill: Its Early History, LHA 40, 2005
  • --, Scopwick Windmill, LP&P 15, 1994

Whaplode Shiphay Stow, mill tower

Boston, Maud Foster Mill

Dyke smock mill

Wrawby post mill

Kirby on Bain watermill

Sleaford, Cogglesford watermill

MICELLANEOUS INDUSTRIES in Lincolnshire : Bibliography
Books and other printed sources on miscellaneous industries in Lincolnshire

Some of the industries in this section were small scale and short lived and long since forgotten. Others, like the ice factory at Grimsby and the ropery at Barton, were very important for a period of time.
 
Books and other printed sources

Abbreviations: LHA = Lincolnshire History and Archaeology (SLHA journal); LP&P = Lincolnshire Past & Present (SLHA Magazine); LIA = Lincolnshire Industrial Archaeology (forerunner of LHA, 1966-1973); SOL = Survey of Lincoln
  • Barsley, Harold, The Woad Industry of Algarkirk, LIA Vol 4, No.2, 1969
  • Evans, E WThe Story of the Hall-Mark, Hall’s Ropery [Barton], 1975
  • Everitt, Neil et al, The Grimsby Ice Factory, LP&P 81, 2010
  • Everson, Paul, A Sixteenth-Century Manorial Woad Mill at Claxby, LHA 19, 1985
  • Fenton, WillRopeworks: A brief history of Hall’s Barton Ropery, Barton-on-Humber: Fathom Press, 2007
  • Johnson, C P C, Tanning Your Hide [Tanneries, Lincoln], in Hill, P R (Ed), Wigford: Historic Lincoln South of the River, SOL, 2000
  • Knapp, Malcolm, Bjorlow (Great Britain) Ltd, Tannery, Grantham, LHA 12, 1977
  • Lester, Chris & Redmore, Ken, Wheelwright’s Tyre Oven [Horncastle], LHA 45, 2010
  • Nott, Hugh, Papermaking in Lincolnshire 1600-1900, (Book), SLHA, 2008
  • Page, Chris, Beet Root Distillery in Louth, LP&P76, 2009
  • Page, Chris, Beet Root Distillery in Lincoln, LP&P 77, 2009
  • Pape, G E, Blacksmith’s Shop at Osbournby, LIA Vol 3, No.1, 1968
  • Robinson, David, Adam Eve and Louth Carpets [Eve & Ranshaw Ltd, Louth], (Book), Louth Naturalists’, Antiquarian and Literary Society, 2010
  • Smith, Paul, Charles Sharp & Co Ltd, The Firm that Grew Success [seed merchant, Sleaford], LP&P 120, 2020
  • Squires, Stewart, Blacksmith’s and Saddler’s Shop, Market Place, Wragby, LHA 41, 2006
  • Tann, Geoff, Walker’s Snack Food / Smith’s Crisps Factory [Lincoln], in Walker, Andrew (Ed), ‘South-East Lincoln: Canwick Road, South Common, St Catherine’s and Bracebridge’, SOL, 2011
  • Taylor, Gary, Tobacco Pipe Making in Stamford, LP&P 38, 1999
  • Wilson C M (Ed), Fison’s Limited, Carholme Road, Lincoln, LHA 12, 1977
  • Wilson, C M, Peppermint Distillery at Holbeach, LIA Vol 8, No.1, 1973
  • Wright, Neil R, Cheavins Filters [Boston], LIA Vol 6, No.1, 1971
  • Wright, Neil RTobacco Manufacturing in Lincolnshire, LIA, 1970
  • Wright, Neil R, Site of a Woad Mill, Tattershall Road, Boston, LHA 39, 2004
  • --, Elsoms: The History, Elsoms [seed merchants, Spalding], (Booklet), 1994
  • --, The History: A Family History of Spring Manufacture, Skegness Springs Limited, (Booklet), 2010
  • --, Clog Making in the Lincoln Area, LP&P 112, 2018

Barton-upon-Humber, Halls' ropery 

Lincoln, Cannon's glue works

Boyall's Carriage Works, Grantham
The local firm making horse-drawn vehicles which were crucial to industry, trade and leisure in the town

Now the Grantham branch sales office and showroom of a national chain of builders' merchants, this delightful memento of a bygone Victorian industry was once the centrepiece of an extensive factory complex devoted to the manufacture of a wide variety of horse-drawn vehicles and their accessories.

These ranged from the utilitarian to the elegant, from bespoke carriages 'for the nobility' to the quality production of such hardware as artillery wheels.

Richard Boyall's Brownlow Works occupied a prestigious site close to one of the county's principal railway junctions and thrived in late Victorian times until its products' motive power was superceded by the internal combustion engine.

In the builders' yard can still be seen traces of the former work base, including the works' bell and forge chimneys, but pride of place goes to the former showroom building which has survived more or less intact until the present day.

Escaping demolition at the time when Boyall's went out of business in pre-WW1 times, this building has seen many changes of use. From time to time it has been a cinema, a dance hall, an ice rink and roller skating hall, a distribution centre for dairy equipment as well as enduring periods of near dereliction. It is now carefully restored and well respected by its owners.


Peter Stevenson 

Boyall's carriage works, Grantham
Boyall's Brownlow Works, corner of
Wharf Road and Station Approach

 

Factory ball at Boyall's carriage works, Grantham
The bell used at Boyall's Works

Torksey Railway Bridge
A disused bridge over the Trent has historic significance

The railway bridge at Torksey over the Trent was designed by Sir John Fowler in 1849 for the Manchester, Sheffield & Lincolnshire Railway. It is one of the country's first examples of a tubular girder bridge. (Fowler later went on to build the famous Forth Rail Bridge with Benjamin Baker.)

At first the MSLR Board mistrusted the design, and permission to use the bridge was refused, but after 4 months of arguing it finally opened to rail traffic in April 1850.

The girders were strengthened in 1897 and the bridge was used regularly until 1959 when the line was closed. A grade 2* listed structure, it is now under consideration for use as part of a Sustrans cycle route.


Adrian Wheal

 

 

Boston Feather Factory
An unusual survival from a once common Fenland industry

This very decorative factory building has now been converted to apartments, but it was originally built for the processing of feathers for pillow cases.

Geese had been kept on the local fens for centuries, and their feathers were plucked twice a year and purified by heat in factories like this before being used to stuff the pillows of the rich.

At one time there were half a dozen such factories in the Lincolnshire fens and this is the last surviving Victorian building of that industry. The first feather factory on the site burnt down and this building was put up in its place in 1877.

It was erected by F S Anderson & Co., and very unusually for Victorian times this company was named after a woman. The Anderson family had been in the feather business for many years and by the time the factory was rebuilt the widowed Mrs Frances Susannah Anderson had succeeded her husband as head of the firm.

The feather factory continued in use until the middle of the 20th century and was latterly run by Fogarty & Co. who now operate from larger premises on the edge of Boston.


Neil Wright

Feather factory, Boston
Feather Factory
Trinity Street, Boston

Wymondham Navvy House
A unique survival on the former Bourne to Saxby MGNR railway line

Introduction

The Navvy House at Wymondham is one of a number of similar houses built in c1890 by the contractors for the Midland Railway for the construction of the line between Saxby and Bourne. Contracts were let and work began in October 1890.

The Wymondham house would have been constructed for Holme and King, the contractor for the railway between Saxby and a point between Wymondham and South Witham. It is the only survivor of several such structures which once stood in Castle Bytham, South Witham and Wymondham.

An extract from the Midland Railway plans shows the existing Station House, marked as ‘S M Ho’, on the north side of the line with the existing Navvy House next west in the centre and the demolished Navvy House to the extreme west.

The house is a Grade II Listed Building, having been Listed on 13 January 1988 with a subsequent list amendment of 17 October 2007.


History

By the late C19 and following action by Parliament navvy housing was of a standard much improved over earlier years. Although considered to be temporary buildings, they provided a good standard of accommodation compared with some rural housing. Internally there were three rooms, with two of them being heated.

At one end was the smallest room, for occupation by a married man and his family. This and the central room were separated by the chimney with fireplace on both sides. The central and other end room were of an equal size.

The centre was a communal living and dining room with the unheated end being a dormitory. The wife would be paid by the lodgers for cleaning, cooking and washing.

Of the nine huts in Wymondham, the 1891 Census records that one was occupied by nine people, two by ten, one by 11, one by 12, two by 13 and two by 14. Of the pair of which the survivor is one, one was occupied by 13 people the other by 14.

One had a Foreman of Works, his wife and six daughters, together with six Railway Labourers, the latter all lodgers. The other had a Railway Labourer, his wife, described as a Cook, two Railway Labourer sons, a daughter described as a Laundress, and eight lodgers. One of these was an Engine Driver, two Engine Cleaners and five Railway Labourers.

Most were demolished after the line opened in 1893 but five examples at Little Bytham, one pair at South Witham and two at Wymondham, were retained and used as staff accommodation. They are all shown on the County Series, 1;2500 Second Edition maps.

Those at South Witham were demolished on 13 October 1954. Those at Little Bytham had all been demolished by the early 1970s. One of the surviving pair at Wymondham was demolished in 1993.

The local authority, Melton Borough Council, and the owner were not informed of the listing at the time because the paperwork had been sent to Wymondham in Norfolk.

One of the pair at Wymondham was lived in until the 1950s. The survivor has remnants of domestic wallpaper on its walls. Oral recollection is that it was regarded locally as rather shameful to live in what was, by the 1950s, a substandard dwelling, and it was occupied until 1956.

An assessment has been made in an effort to establish if the vertical timber cladding to the exterior is original. Surviving photographs of that at Broadgate Lane, South Witham, show it to have had horizontal boarding. However, there was a different contractor employed here, JD Nowell, and he may have clad the huts he provided in a different manner.

SWA Newton’s photographs of Navvy housing for the construction of the Great Central Railway in the period 1894-99 show the use of both horizontal and vertical cladding although where the latter is used it is plain, flat boarding rather than with the relief found at Wymondham.

So, the results are inconclusive but it is clear that the existing boards do have considerable age and, thus, may well be original.


Significance

That the building has architectural and historic interest is not disputed. The Heritage Gateway entry refers to it being a rare and almost intact example of its type and that it may be the only surviving example in England.

There is one other similar building, at Dent Station in Cumbria on the Settle to Carlisle line, also built by the Midland Railway in the period 1866 to 1875. It is also a Grade II Listed Building. Once almost derelict, this has now been repaired. It now provides for holiday accommodation, see www.dentstation.co.uk/snowhuts_interior.php

The website describes it as having been built in 1885 as a lineside shelter for railway workers, the name Snow Hut derived from its use for workers in winter keeping the line running at times of heavy snowfall.

The listing description for this building states that it was a dormitory for Navvies with an office at one end. It also has walls of stone which made it of more permanent construction. Indeed, in such an isolated spot, and being sited at the highest railway station in England, it may have been purposely built to more permanent than that at Wymondham.

The list description does also state that the building is a rare survival and that other examples have been substantially altered. No other examples have been listed.

The conclusion to be drawn from this is that the Wymondham Navvy house is unique, both in terms of its survival and relatively unaltered state. It is, therefore, a very important building in a national context.


Stewart Squires

Navvy house, Wymondham
Navvy house close to Wymondham
station on the former Bourne to Saxby MGNR line, 2010

Owston Ferry Pumping Station
Bordering the Trent and the Isle of Axholme, this pumping station has had a variety of engines and pumps

Owston Ferry, on the west bank of the Trent, lies on the edge of the historic Isle of Axholme, a large area a little above sea level. Effective drainage was first achieved here in the seventeenth century by lifting water from the land into the embanked Trent using wind-powered pumps.

In the early twentieth century the pumping station was equipped with two Marshall L-Class double-expansion steam engines driving Drysdale pumps to drain approx 5000 acres. One engine was replaced in 1952 by a Ruston and Hornsby 8HRC diesel engine and later a 3-cylinder Lister-Blackstone engine was installed. The remaining steam engine is believed not to have run since 1963.

The Owston Ferry Pumping Station Preservation Society has been set up to preserve and interpret the station and its machinery.


For further details about membership contact:

Marshall steam engine Marshall (of Gainsborough) Class L T Tandem Compound Steam Engine as installed at Owston Ferry

Owston Ferry pumping station
Owston Ferry Pumping Station
from the west

Windmills and Watermills
Common but significant features of the Lincolnshire Countryside

Lincolnshire is fortunate in the number of tower windmills which survive; a few still operate commercially and others grind grain as part of a visitor experience. At one time there were hundreds of such mills across the county and the familiar windmill ‘stumps’ and conversions to dwellings indicate how common they once were. Only one post mill and one smock mill, out of many, stand today.

With relatively flat and open countryside watermills have been less common and generally less important in Lincolnshire than windmills, though there are several interesting examples. Few of the watermills retain their machinery today and fewer still are in working condition.

The Gallery on this website (see under Industry-Cornmilling) has a collection of almost 300 photographs of Lincolnshire mills. Some of the windmill images were taken in the early twentieth century when the mills were in full working order; others record the surviving stumps of windmill towers or show the ingenuity with which architects have converted them into attractive living accomodation. The principal sources of the photographs are the collections of Jon Sass and Peter Kirk.

Photographs - Top: The stump of the tower windmill at Freiston Shore, one of scores that survive as listed structures.
Below: Ellis Mill, Lincoln, a small mill regularly grinding corn and open to visitors.
(Both photographs from the Peter Kirk Collection)

 

Rex Wailes, the great 20th century authority on windmills, wrote to The Lincolnshire Local History Society in 1953 with a list of 90 windmills which had been working in the County thirty years earlier. He admits that several mills for which he did not hold photographs were omitted from the list.

He went on to say that in 1953 only 9 Lincolnshire windmills remained working.

Wailes made a strong appeal for the repair and preservation of the 9 mills together with 3 more that could readily be brought back into operation. J E Thompson, millwright of Alford, had provided estimates of cost for the necessary work.

This is Wailes' list of Lincolnshire windmills working in 1923. Those still operating in 1953 or, in his view, capable of being easily brought back into use are marked with an asterisk (*)

Mill at Penny Hill, Holbeach
(photograph by Rex Wailes)


Addlethorpe
Alford, Hoyle’s Mill (5 sails)*
Alford, Myer’s Mill (6 sails)
Alford, Station Mill (4 sails)
Bardney (6 sails)
Barton-upon-Humber
Beckingham
Belton
Bennington
Billinghay (4 sails)
Billinghay (6 sails)
Bilsby
Binbrook (6 sails)
Boston, Maud Foster Mill (5 sails)*
Brant Broughton
Burgh le Marsh (4 sails)
Burgh le Marsh (5 sails)*
Butterwick
Coleby Heath (6 sails)
Coleby Lodge (6 sails)
Coningsby (5 sails)
Cowbit
Croft
Dyke smock mill
Epworth, Brook’s Mill
Epworth, Thompson’s Mill
Foston, post mill
Freiston tower mill
Friskney
Friskney Tofts, post mill
Fulstow
Gainsborough (5 sails)
Gedney Dyke (6 sails)
Gedney Hill
Grainthorpe
Grebby
Hagworthingham
Halton Holegate*
Heapham*
Heckington (4 sails)
Heckington (8 sails)*
Hogsthorpe
Holbeach, Damgate Mill
Holbeach, Penny Hill (6 sails)
Huttoft
Kexby
Kirton End
Kirton in Lindsey
Langton Hill
Laughterton, post mill
Leadenham
Legbourne, wind and water mill
Lincoln, Ellis
Long Sutton, Brunswick (6 sails)
Long Sutton, Lutton Gowts
Maltby le Marsh
Metheringham (6 sails)
Moulton Chapel



New Bolingbroke
Oasby
Old Bolingbroke
Old Leake
PinchbeckPinchbeck West
Saltfleet
Scartho (5 sails)
Scotter
Sibsey, Trader Mill (6 sails)*
South Killingholme post mill
South Rauceby
South Willingham
Spalding, Common
Spalding, Little London
Stallingborough*
Stickford*
Stickney
Sturton by Stow*
Swineshead, Houlder’s Mill
Swineshead, North End Mill
Toynton All Saints*
Trusthorpe
Wainfleet St Mary
Waltham (6 sails)*
Wellingore (6 sails)
Whaplode Shepeau Stow
Willingham (4 sails)
Wrawby post mill


New Holland & Barrow uopn Humber
Visit by SLHA's IA Team, February 2018

A small group of SLHA members spent a day in February 2018 on the south bank of the Humber examining the industrial heritage of New Holland and Barrow-upon-Humber.

Sites visited in New Holland included the railway and docks together with the public and commercial buildings erected to serve the needs of this specialised community.

At Barrow Haven the group examined the docks and noted the extensive areas of the former brickyards. The day ended at the site of the former lime kilns on the edge of Barrow village.

A detailed illustrated report is appended here.


Fulletby Water Tower
A 50-year-old structure serving villages in the Wolds east of Horncastle

The water tower at Fulletby is located immediately to the east of the Village, positioned in a stand of trees at Top Holt alongside the cliff-top road between Belchford and Greetham. It stands on the high ground of the chalk escarpment that forms the Lincolnshire Wolds where ground levels reach 140 metres above Ordnance Datum (AOD). The National Grid Reference (NGR) is TF 302733.
 
The tower is part of the public water supply network operated by Anglian Water Services serving this rural area of East Lindsey. It was constructed in 1972 by the former East Lincolnshire Water Board to improve public drinking water supplies to the local area by providing elevated and emergency storage.
 
The elevated storage tank, with a capacity of 45 cu. metres (10,000 gallons), consists of 1.22 x 1.22 metres (4ft x 4ft) bolted Braithwaite steel panels with overall dimensions of 3.66 m x 3.66 m x 3.66m high. Top water level is 153.80 m. AOD, some 14 metres above the surrounding ground.
 
The tank is supported by an open lattice steel tower with the inlet and outlet pipework rising vertically within the open steelwork frame. The water tower at Fulletby is one of a few Braithwaite steel tanks, once common, that are still in service.
 
Two small horizontal spindle booster pumps (one duty, one standby), complete with control equipment, are located at ground level immediately beneath the tower. These are housed within a small building. Controlled by water levels within the tank, the pumps boost water pressures in the pipeline supplying the tower, up to the elevated tank.
 
Water is supplied from Anglian Water’s sourceworks and pumping station at Raithby, near Louth. Water is abstracted from a number of deep boreholes into the Spilsby Sandstones and is then pumped up to the service reservoir at Stenigot, about six miles north of Fulletby.
 
From Stenigot water flows by gravity through the watermains network to the water tower at Fulletby, but at an insufficient pressure to reach the elevated tank, hence the need for the booster pumps.
 
The quality of the water supplied from Raithby pumping station is described as good but with high levels of hardness.
 
The rural area supplied from the tower is generally to the south and east of the tower site and includes the villages of Tetford, Somersby, Hagworthingham, Greetham as well as Fulletby itself.
 
Being on some of the highest ground in this part of the southern Wolds, the village is also a prime location for telecommunication masts, several of which are attached to the top of the water tower.
 
Eric Newton, January 2022