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Big Guns at Grantham
The Bicentenary of Isaac Newton's death was marked in fine style in 1927

For the 200th anniversary of the death of Isaac Newton a conference was held in Grantham on 19 and 20 March 1927.  It was attended by ‘200 men of learning’.

Day one was a series of high powered lectures on Newton’s works. The Master of Trinity College Cambridge spoke on optics, Dr. H. Lamb gave a talk on dynamics, The Astronomer Royal talked on gravitation and Prof. L J Mordell of Manchester chose pure mathematics.

The afternoon was spent at Woolsthorpe and Colsterworth followed by tea at Stoke Rochford at the invitation of Mr and Mrs Christopher Turnor when Mr Turnor gave an address on ‘Countryside in Newton’s time’.  The mayor attended the dinner and announced there would be a fund to establish a scholarship for mathematics and science for boys at the Grammar School.

On Sunday 20 March the Bishop attended the service in the Grantham Parish Church and a wreath was laid at the statue of Newton.

Reported in the Reports and Papers of the Architectural Societies, 1927

Mystery Photographs
Help us find these unknown locations

 

Photograph 1.

In the foreground is a 10RB excavator made by Ruston-Bucyrus of Lincoln.  But what is the fine country house in the background?

Photograph 2.

This postcard is entitled "Willoughby", but is it Willoughby in Lincolnshire?  If it is our Willoughby, why photograph these plain cottages?

Thornton Church Organ
A small country church near Horncastle contains a rare old organ of considerable interest

The organ in Thornton Church is one of the oldest in Britain.  It was put in the Choristers’ Practice Room at Magdalen College Oxford in 1740, but it may be even older, possibly from the 1680s.

All the pipework except the Cornet and the top notes of the Principal stop is made of wood. It has a bureau type of case, the upper part is dark mahogany but the lower part is older. The keyboard has black naturals and sandwich ivory sharps.

It was originally short octave GG compass and has Open & Stopped Diapasons, Principal, 15th, Sesquialtera Bass, Cornet Treble. It is still hand pumped by an iron lever on the side. The short octave bass has been altered except for bottom G. The upper part of the case is rather after the style of Byfield who may well have renovated it and put it in Magdalen College in 1740.

The organ was given to Horsington church in 1860 by Magdalen College who were patrons of the living and paid for the new church to be built.  Eventually Horsington did not need it and it was moved to Scrivelsby, but was affected by the damp there and so was moved to Stixwould and finally to Thornton.

Its preservation was largely due to the late Rev. William Whaler, incumbent of this group of parishes, who was a lover of old organs. The organ is a great treasure ands a little known unique survival among church organs in this country.

Robert Pacey, Burgh le Marsh, July 2010

 

Prayers for Prisoners
A generous 18th Century will benefits local prison inmates

When the Lincolnshire Architectural and Archaeological Society joined the Lincolnshire Local History Society, members deposited their library and papers in the Lincolnshire Archives. Among these papers is reference to a will of 1715.

In this Rebekah Hussey left £1,000 to be distributed, as her Trustees judged fittest, among prisoners that are confined for small debts in Lincoln, Lincolnshire and adjoining counties.

£60 a year was also left "to a worthy Church of England Clergyman that will preach every Sabbath Day to the prisoners at Lincoln and pray daily with them”

Arthur C Benson
A distinguished author from a remarkable family with Lincoln connections

Arthur C. Benson (1862-1929) was 10 years old when he came to live at the Chancery in Lincoln. His father, Edward White Benson was Chancellor at the Cathedral (1872-77), then the first Bishop of Truro (1877-82) and Archbishop of Canterbury (1882–96).

Arthur Benson was a distinguished author and brother to novelists E. F. Benson and R. H. Benson, and to Egyptologist Margaret Benson.

From 1915 to 1925, he was Master of Magdalene College Cambridge, and he is chiefly remembered for writing the lyrics of "Land of Hope and Glory” to Elgar’s "Pomp and Circumstance” for the Coronation of Edward VII.

George Boole (1815-1864)
George Boole, born in Lincoln, was an outstanding mathematician. His upbringing was modest, though he showed early talent and became a schoolmaster. His outstanding achievement was to develop the algebraic logic which underpins computer science.

George Boole was a great intellectual and a great man of Lincoln. He was acclaimed a child prodigy in languages, became a professional teacher at the age of sixteen and won the equivalent of a Nobel Prize in Mathematics at twenty-nine. This was all achieved by a self-taught man without advanced formal education.

Whilst running his own school in Pottergate, Lincoln, he published 'The Mathematical Analysis of Logic' which laid the foundation for his 'Boolean Logic' that underpins our modern technology. This led to his later work 'An Investigation of the Laws of Thought' which gave birth to much of modern 'pure' maths. It is also at the heart of the work which was used almost 100 years later by Claude Shannon and colleagues to make programming an electronic binary computer possible in the sense we know it today. Boole had no idea that would be the result of his endeavours; his was a pure 'blue sky' concern – to model thought mathematically.

It is notable that Augustus De Morgan (1806-71), a correspondent and mentor to Boole, also tutored Ada Lovelace (1815-52) and was one of the few friends of Charles Babbage (1791-1871). Babbage invented the mechanical computer, and Lovelace the computer program. Sadly, neither of them met George Boole. If they had, perhaps the digital age would have been upon us a century earlier and Lincoln seen as the centre of it all!


Boole's Early Years

Boole was born on 2 November 1815 in Silver Street Lincoln. He was baptised the next day in nearby St Swithin's Church. This was not the current magnificent church which was completed in 1887, more than 20 years after George's death in 1864. The position of the earlier church can still be seen in the small green space between Bank Street and Free School Lane.

This was an important place for Boolean Logic because the minister at St Swithin's, Rev G S Dickson, was one of those who encouraged George's mathematical endeavours by lending him a book on differential calculus.

Another local person who encouraged George mathematically was Sir E F Bromhead of Thurlby Hall, near Bassingham, eight miles south of Lincoln. Bromhead was a patron of many notable 'natural philosophers' in the area.

In 1816 George's parents moved to 49 Silver St and this small area near the centre of Lincoln remained important to George throughout his life in the city. He went to an infants' school in Mint Lane and later lectured to working people in the Mechanics Institute that was housed in the old Grammar School on Free School Lane, between what is now the library and the new St Swithin's.

George's first school as proprietor was in the lane too. Unfortunately, almost every site which Boole would have known in 'down hill' Lincoln has been completely redeveloped at least once since his time. The Grammar School is one of the few places he would still recognise.

George was largely self-taught in everything (which some say might explain his brilliance). However, his uncle was a schoolmaster with his own school on the High Street. Also, he received some formal education at a school in Michaelgate to the north of his boyhood streets.

He started to assist the schoolmaster here when he was only thirteen. To the East of this a couple of streets over, at the foot of Steep Hill, was the Jew's House, a reminder of the medieval Jewish community in Lincoln and its persecution.

As a boy, George was mentored by a Jewish man and this is thought to have influenced his Christian beliefs and the basic assumptions of his Boolean Logic.

To the south of the Jew's House lived another supporter of the young prodigy, his first publisher, William Brooke. His shop was opposite St Mary Le Wigford Church on High Street.

At fifteen Boole gained some notoriety when the local newspaper, The Herald published a poem that George had translated from classical Greek. Some readers refused to believe that such a youngster, especially one without formal instruction in the classics, could have produced it unaided. After a protracted period of public investigation, Boole was correctly credited with the translation.


Boole Begins to Make his Mark

George began to publish mathematical papers in the early 1840s and soon was recognised by the most accomplished mathematicians as one of their best. The Royal Society gave him their coveted Royal Medal and eventually he was awarded top academic honours, despite never gaining entry qualifications for university.

One wonders, if it had existed then, would the University of Lincoln have opened its doors to Lincoln's home-grown mathematical genius? If it had, George would almost certainly never have left the city and his subsequent life in Ireland, his marriage and his five daughters might have been denied him.

At the age of sixteen Boole started work as a paid schoolmaster. This was partly in order to support his family because his father's business as a cobbler had collapsed.

After a couple of abortive attempts at teaching in Doncaster and Liverpool, he returned to Lincoln and taught happily at Waddington College – five miles to the south of Lincoln. After a year he launched his own school in the city and settled down to this way of life for four years before being enticed back to the establishment in Waddington to take over from the proprietor for another two years.

His last period of schoolmastering took place from 1840-1849 in his own school at 3 Pottergate, where a plaque is situated. This is almost opposite his father's grave in Minster Yard, to the southeast of the Cathedral. John Boole died late in 1848 and George's mother Mary, who died in 1854, is buried with him.

Boole began to try to use his scientific acclaim to help secure a university post in England. With his background he was not well placed in the establishment politics of the time and this counted against him. Eventually, with the backing of De Morgan, Bromhead and others, he was appointed as the first Professor of Mathematics in the brand new university at Cork in Ireland.


Boole Moves to Ireland

George's friends and well-wishers gathered to give him a send-off dinner before he left for Ireland in late 1849. They chose to hold the commemorative evening in The White Hart hotel on Bailgate.

Interestingly, he probably took advantage of the new rail link, built in 1846 to head west to Liverpool, where he had taught briefly two decades before.

Fifteen years after leaving Lincoln, Boole died of pneumonia in 1864. This was the result of insisting on teaching whilst soaked to the skin by a thunderstorm.


Boole Remembered

The major Boole memorial in England is the window and plaque in the cathedral. This was paid for by public subscription soon after his death was made known in the city.

It is the fourth stained glass window in the North wall of the cathedral (on the left as you walk through from the main entrance). It is inspired by his commitment to teaching in the city.

The University of Lincoln intends to celebrate Boole's legacy during "BOOLEfest" every November, beginning in 2010. By 2015 the university hope to have worked up to a commemoration which will raise his profile within the city, the county, the country and the world.


Based on text by Dave Kenyon of the University of Lincoln, in turn using original material from Des MacHale's book: 'George Boole' (Dublin, 1985) and the biography of Boole by Eileen Harrison published on the following website:
www.rogerparsons.info/george/boole.html

Photographs by Ken Redmore

Boole plaque in Cathedral
Boole plaque in Cathedral

 

Former Mechanics Institute, 1849
Former Mechanics Institute, 1849

 

Boole's school, 3, Pottergate, Lincoln
Boole's school, 3, Pottergate, Lincoln

 

Plaque outside 3, Pottergate, Lincoln
Plaque outside 3, Pottergate, Lincoln

 

Boole's father's grave
Boole's father's grave

 

The location of John Boole's grave
The location of the grave

 

Memorial window in Cathedral
Memorial window in Cathedral

 

Canon C W Foster's contribution to Lincolnshire's History
In 1989 the 200th edition of the Victoria County History was published. To celebrate the event SLHA arranged a series of lectures at Jews' Court on Lincolnshire historians, in which Canon C W Foster received prominent attention.

In 1989 the 200th edition of the Victoria County History of the counties of England was published. To celebrate the event SLHA arranged a series of lectures at Jews' Court on Lincolnshire historians. Dr Kathleen Major's contribution was on Canon C W Foster and Sir Frank and Lady Stenton. This and twelve similar lectures were published by the Society in a book entitled: 'Some Historians of Lincolnshire'. (The book is still in print - see Other SLHA Publications.)

On Canon Foster Miss Major said: 'To him we owe the Lincolnshire Archives office and its associated Foster Library - the working library of a scholar so far as I know the finest collection of books in a provincial record office. We also owe to him the foundation of the Lincoln Record Society in 1910. Thirdly - and this may be less obvious - he first brought before historians of the church the fact that the history of the church cannot properly be understood without attention to the administrative and legal records of the daily business of bishops, archdeacons and parish priests.'

When considering the many large collections with which Canon Foster dealt, the most striking in bulk is perhaps the series of Bishops' Transcripts of parish registers. He found these is a very dirty and neglected state but managed to sort and index them, despite difficulties with seven different Carltons, six benefices at the various Toyntons and seven at the several Kirkbys.

Canon Charles Wilmer Foster
Canon Foster (1866-1935)
Vicar of Timberland and
Canon of Lincoln Cathedral

A Guide to Self-Publishing
An experienced author explains how get a book into print - what to consider and what pitfalls to avoid

What do you say to someone who has written about a subject dear to their heart and is considering publishing their masterpiece? Here are some of the more important points to bear in mind when considering publishing a book which has a local rather than a national potential readership.

If you aim to produce an attractive and professional looking book, the cost of printing is likely to be several thousand pounds. For example, a recently published book 150 page book (about 60,000 words plus 200 illustrations), printed in black and white cost £5600. The printer undertook the design work. The print run was 1000.


Dealing with the Printer

Having decided to go ahead with the proposed book and to publish oneself, three estimates for the printing should be obtained. Do try to examine a book produced by each printer to ensure that the quality of the paper and the clarity of the print is what you want. Take a good look also at the quality of the reproduction of the illustrations. If at all possible have the book perfect bound i.e. with a spine and be very sure that the book title is printed on the spine. No one is going to bother to look at a book stacked on the bookseller’s shelves if they can’t read the title.

The printer will need to know the number of copies required; the size of the pages, i.e. A4, A5 or a special size; the number and type of the illustrations and whether they are to be printed in black and white or colour. It is important to know what extra charge will be incurred if you exceed the number of pages or illustrations estimated.


Illustrations

Having chosen an estimate add to it a suitable amount to cover any cost you might incur for the purchase of photographs or for employing an illustrator, the retailer’s percentage and other expenses. Be very careful to obtain permission to use illustrations that are not your own and acknowledge them correctly in the book.


Review Copies

Complimentary copies of the book will have to be sent to magazines, newspapers and other publications so that the book can be reviewed – a book will not sell unless potential purchasers know if its existence. Another means of publicising a book is by advertising but this can be expensive and adds to the cost of producing the book. I have never advertised any of my books but I have published several by subscription. I have found that by offering a reduced price to those who are prepared to support a book by subscribing before they have seen the finished article quite a reasonable sum can be raised.


Library Deposit Copies

Six copies must be put aside for eventual dispatch to the Agent for the Legal Deposit Libraries. It is a requirement of the Copyright Act 1911 that every book published is deposited with the British Library, the Bodliean Library, Oxford; the University Library, Cambridge; the National Library of Scotland, Edinburgh; the Library of Trinity College, Dublin and the National Library of Wales.


ISBN

Although it is not essential, I think it is unwise not to arrange for an ISBN (International Standard Book Number) to be allocated to a book. If a book is not recorded in this way details will not be circulated to libraries and booksellers and sales will be drastically reduced. If an ISBN is known booksellers can more easily trace the source of a book when potential customers ask for it.


Bar Code

It is probably wise to have a bar code printed on the back cover and a good printer will be able to arrange for this to be done. Some retailers will not agree to stock a book without this.


Working out the Cover Price

As well as the cost of printing, a professional publisher, in order to arrive at the retail price of the finished book, will need to take into account travel, telephone calls, postage etc. These would typically amount to £200-500. A self-publisher will usually not be so meticulous in recording these items, but they need to be considered.

Based on these figures and a printing cost of £5600, with a print run of 1000, each copy will cost a little over £6 to produce. The usual retailer’s percentage is 33.3 or 35, although some well-known bookstores charge much more. If, based on these figures, the retail price is fixed at £10.00 then you will actually receive £6.66 or £6.50 per copy. You have to decide whether this is sufficient. I think in this case I would increase the retail price to at least £10.50. It all depends on how much profit you want to make and how quickly you need to recover your costs.


Despatching Copies

Remember to include in your charge for postage and packing the purchase of suitable materials in which to despatch orders by post.


Conclusion

This brief account is simply intended as a guide and in practice a potential author needs to sit back and seriously consider what they are letting themselves in for.

Perhaps the most important item, which I haven’t mentioned, is the content of the manuscript itself. We all tend to think our own work is of interest to others. Put bluntly but realistically it is rare for this to be the case. I have found that many authors of such material will not agree to editing.

One must be prepared to have a manuscript read by several people from different backgrounds. My last book was read thoroughly by three people each of whom found errors and made suggestions. I also arranged for certain sections to be read by specialists in a particular field.

I hope that this paper will be useful – good luck!

John Ketteringham

Three examples of
John Ketteringham's titles
A Third Lincolnshirte Hotchpotch - by John Ketteringham

Lincolnshire Natives and Others - by John Ketteringham

  Lincolnshire Women - by John Ketteringham

Tips for Local History Groups
Basic information and useful contacts to consider

  1. Hold a village walk/trail including a short history as introduction. Invite everyone to exchange information and ask questions. Finish with tea in the village hall if possible.
     
  2. Develop a website – involve the school and other local groups and societies. Add to the village website if one already exists.
     
  3. Compile and distribute a newsletter on a regular basis – it need not be a grand colour leaflet.
     
  4. Keep copies of parish and other local magazines. Rubbish to-day makes the heirlooms of to-morrow.
     
  5. The Local Studies section in Lincoln Central Library is an invaluable source of documents, large scale maps, census returns and local newspapers. Local libraries have a local history section as well.
     
  6. Lincolnshire Archives on St. Rumbold Street, Lincoln (phone 01522 782040) have very helpful staff for researchers. The material held here is very wide ranging.
     
  7. Use the Historic Environment Record (HER) based at Witham House, Lincoln (www.lincolnshire.gov.uk) or telephone 01522 278070. They hold a wide range of material on Lincolnshire parishes and welcome visitors.
     
  8. National Monuments Record offer Local Studies Resources pack for £15.00. It includes aerial photos, listed buildings, archaeological sites etc.
    Tel: 01793 414600
    www.english-heritage.org.uk/nmr
     
  9. The British Agricultural Society publishes a journal twice a year. The subscription is £15.00 p.a. and both this and Rural History To-day, which comes with it, are deposited in Lincolnshire Archives.
     
  10. The British Association for Local History publishes The Local Historian with Local History News each quarter. These are full of ideas. The web site is www.balh.co.uk which will link into a number of helpful sites.
     
  11. Arrowfile (www.arrowfile.com) are suppliers of acid free plastic pockets and other special containers for care of archival materials.
     

Brenda Webster

Nettleham parish magazine
An award-winning local
parish magazine

 

The Local History Magazine
Local History Magazine - an
excellent source of general
information and news

Writing a Church Guide
Making full use of local people, books, magazines and other sources

Here are some key areas to consider when researching the history of a church and writing a guide.


Talk
  • to the Churchwardens
  • to retired Churchwardens
  • to the oldest worshippers
  • to ex-choir boys
  • to previous vicars
  • to school teachers

Ask them about their memories of church events, history and projects.

Copy
any photographs that emerge.


Read

  • old parish magazines
  • trade directories (such as White's)
  • Buildings of England volume for the county (Pevsner)
  • King's England book for the county (Mee)
  • Discovering Church Furniture (Shire Publications).

Read (for a Lincolnshire village)

  • Monson's Church Notes, Lincoln Record Society, Volume 31
  • Bonney's Church Notes 1845-48 (pub 1937)
  • Church Furniture by Peacock (pub 1866)
  • Diaries of Bishop Hicks, Lincoln Record Society, Volume 82
  • Church and Society in Medieval Lincolnshire (Dorothy Owen), SLHA

Consult

  • library collections (earlier church guides, illustrations, parish magazines)
  • archive material (parish deposits, vestry books, glebe terriers, wills, faculties)

Examine

  • church memorials (wall tablets, stained glass, other plaques)


Brenda Webster

East Barkwith church
East Barkwith, St Mary

 

St Leonard's Church, Kirkstead, interior
Kirkstead, St Leonard

Charity School in Wrangle
The origin of an almshouse and how its inhabitants were supported

The Lincolnshire Historian of 1963 printed this article - so much for sex equality!

In 1555 the Rev. Thomas Allenson left his house at Joy Hill in the parish of Wrangle, Holland, Lincolnshire, as a Bedehouse for the poor of Wrangle and Leake, accommodation being provided for one poor man and one poor woman from each parish. A fifth member of the Bedehouse (and usually referred to as ‘the five poor people’) was to be a schoolmaster.

The establishment was endowed with 30 acres of land in Leake and 21 acres 3 roods in Wrangle; and the field names are still the same after 400 years. The bedespeople had for their use the grounds of the house, called the Pingle, and the Bedehouse ‘two acres’ for their cows.

Probably bearing in mind the rule of Leviticus 19 vv.9 & 10, whatever could be gained from the sale of the ‘aftergrass’ of the Pingle and two acres did not pass into general account but was distributed equally to the five members. Winter fodder was also provided by the endowment for the Bedehouse cows which had the usual grazing rights on the Common.

The parish members each had two small apartments, one of which had a fireplace, but there was no free supply of fuel.

The provisions of the will supplied each of the three men with 6d a week and the two women with 5d each. These amounts were unchanged until 20 May 1705, when ‘Mr. William Erskine Vicar of Wrangle, did his last will dated 26 April 1705 gave 9 acres of pasture adjoining to the 6 acres of pasture belonging to the Beadhouse nigh a Common called Seadikes for and towards the augmenting of the weekly pay of 2s 4d given by Thos. Allenson, Vicar of Wrangle to 5 poor people, members of the Beadhouse’. As result of this bequest, each member henceforward received a shilling a week.

Note: The original four brick-built almshouses on Joy Hill have been converted into a two units and two additional post-war brick bungalows have been added.


Pearl Wheatley, with additional information from Lincolnshire Almshouses by Linda Crust, published by Heritage Lincolnshire, 2002

High Tide on the Coast of Lincolnshire, 1571
Jean Ingelow's well-known poem is based on fact, but two key elements are from the realm of fiction

The 1571 Flood

We are warned that global warming over the next few decades may well bring about significant rises in sea level and threaten large areas of Lincolnshire around the Wash. Five years ago we marked the fiftieth anniversary of the severe floods along the east coast in 1953.

Inevitably these events cause local historians to refer back to past floods of 1281, 1571 and 1810, and especially to Jean Ingelow’s famous narrative poem, ''The High Tide on the Coast of Lincolnshire, 1571'. This is where difficulties arise. This poem is highly atmospheric, but it has to be remembered that it was written in the 19th century and is fiction, not fact!


The Brides of Enderby

Two aspects in particular seem to catch people’s imagination. One is the alleged tune played on the church bells, The Brides of Enderby. Although Mavis Enderby is a real place (not to mention the other Lincolnshire villages: Wood Enderby and Bag Enderby), and bells could be used to warn of danger (as was planned in World War Two), there is no such tune or peal of this name. It was just an invention that fitted the rhythm of the verse.

I hope this will not upset the Canadian place which allegedly named itself after this particular Enderby reference!


The Tidal Eagre

The second myth is that the tide came in as a really gigantic Eygre, or tidal bore – nowadays spelt eagre. There is no doubt that Boston-born Jean Ingelow conducted some research in preparing the poem (though sadly, not into bellringing!) and used accounts of the 1810 floods as the basis of some of her images.

She may well have known people who remembered 1810, and an exceptional eagre is commented on in the Stamford Mercury at the time. This is the only reference to an eagre on the Witham although there used to be a modest one on the Welland at Fosdyke, and there is of course a well-known one that appears on the Trent near Gainsborough.


More Information

More can be read about Jean Ingelow’s sources in the article by the late Chris Sturman and Valerie Purton in Lincolnshire Past and Present, No. 6 (Winter 1991-2) pp 3-6. A few more flood references are noted in No.10/11 (Winter 1992 -Spring 1993) pp 29-30 of the same magazine.


Hilary Healey

 

Jean Ingelow
Jean Ingelow (1820-1897)

Lincolnshire's Non-Conformist Heritage
An Appeal: Details and photographs of the county's "lost" chapels are needed for a county-wide survey

The county is dotted with chapels, many of them derelict, some converted into houses, others into workshops or stores. They are disappearing fast.

SLHA is encouraging Lincolnshire people to send in details - ideally with photographs - of their local chapels.

  • Are they Methodist (Wesleyan, Primitive, Free), Baptist or what?
  • Are there interesting inscriptions (foundation stones, dates etc.)?
  • Are there old photographs?
  • When were they built?
  • When did they close? 
  • Where exactly were they in the village/town?
  • What are surviving chapels used for now?

It would be of great value to assemble a county-wide record.

Wesleyan Methodist Church, Rasen Lane, Lincoln
Rasen Lane Wesleyan Chapel, Lincoln
(It was demolished in the 1950s)

Lincoln's Town Crier
The Town Crier, or Bellman, had an important role to play in the City

Handbells have been used to make announcements or call an opening of a market or other local activity as far back as Roman times.

The City of Lincoln always had a bellman until 1898. It was an appointment by the City Council.

Many wills lodged with the Lincolnshire Archives record bequests for the remuneration of a bellman. One example was the will of Thomas Palfreyman in 1552 'to the belman of the Citie of Lincoln iiiid (four pence)'.

The last crier, John Foley, died in 1898. He was also Mayor's Officer, Sheriff's Officer and Keeper of the Guildhall. He must have been quite a character since a biography of him notes 'more than one occupant of the Mayoral Chair had found it to their advantage to make a friend of him'.

The role of Bellman or Town Crier was introduced again nearly 100 years later in 1989 and now the local occupant of the post regularly competes with others nationwide for the best crier of the year.


Pearl Wheatley

John Foley, Lincoln Town Crier
John Foley
Lincoln's last Town Crier