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SLHA Journal: Lincolnshire History & Archaeology
Scholarly articles and records of research and field investigation in Lincolnshire plus book reviews

Lincolnshire History and Archaeology Editor: Dave Start

Lincolnshire History and Archaeology, the journal of the Society, is received by SLHA members as a benefit of membership. Subject to availability, copies may also be purchased (see left).

Copies of articles in the earliest issues can be downloaded from this website as pdfs. We hope to complete this process in 2019. To read an article, click on the thumbnail of the journal in question from the images below. This reveals the list of articles included in that journal - and then click on the title.

Authors are invited to submit completed manuscripts or outlines of appropriate articles for consideration by the Editor. Notes for the Guidance of Contributors (revised Decembner 2019) and Notes on Illustrations may be downloaded here as pdf files.

The content of each copy of the journal is indicated below:

Click for details --- No. 53 - 2019
No. 53 - 2019
SLHA Journal : Lincolnshire History and Archaeology
No. 53 - 2019

Published 2023

The papers published  in this volume celebrate the life and work of Dennis Mills who died in March 2020.

Dennis Mills – An Introduction
David Stocker

Dr Dennis Mills: An Overview of his Work and Legacy
Kate Tiller
Following his death in March 2020, there have rightly been many tributes to Dennis Mills, the man, and his long and productive life.
It was a life during which he influenced very many people and was a frequent and often pathfinding contributor on a varied range of historical themes including work significant both in his home city and county of Lincolnshire and nationally. Dennis Mills was indeed ‘a local historian of all England,’ This volume, and the online conference in December 2021 on which it draws, are welcome opportunities to assess that contribution.
I am honoured to have been asked to offer an opening overview. I should like to reflect particularly on the distinctive features of Dennis’s work, its legacies for local history, and the challenges it sometimes poses for us in taking local history forward.
The Encourager: A Case Study of Dennis Mills in his Eighties
Beryl George

Having got to work with Dennis Mills for the first time in 2009, the author was involved in several projects, usually as part of a small group, right up until his death in 2020.
This case study of the production of a section of the Survey of Lincoln website on the population of Lincoln 1801-2011, is intended to reflect Dennis’s method of working and ‘people skills’ in his last decade.
It is also intended to provide a rare example of a local history collaborative project as it played out in real time. The case study is based on email trails and working notes.
The Swan Family of Lincoln, 1754-1946
Victoria Thorpe

This article consolidates research that my father, Dennis Mills, and myself have undertaken to examine the history of the Swan family of Lincoln. It begins with the arrival of the Swan family in Lincolnshire and the first records of the family in the Cornhill area of Lincoln in 1754.
The article then examines how, across several generations, the Swan family established itself in the city, first in Cornhill and then latterly in a number of uphill residences. Attention is paid to the lives and professional careers of a number of key members of the family including Robert Swan the elder, John Swan and Robert Swan II and his wife Lucy.
The Swan family’s central involvement in the residential development of nineteenth-century Lincoln is explored, as is its engagement in varied activities ranging from dairying to brickmaking.
The ways in which the family maintained its position amongst the city’s most prominent citizens, in part through a series of significant marriage alliances, is also examined.
Reflections on ‘Closed Parishes
Martin Watkinson

Dennis Mills’s work on ‘open’ and ‘closed’ parishes has influenced a whole generation of historians writing about social conditions in the Victorian countryside. This article celebrates that legacy and seeks to build on the foundations that Mills has laid. In particular, it reflects on and develops his model of ‘closed’ parishes.
‘Closed’ or ‘close’ parishes were generally dominated by one or two major landowners who owned all the farms and cottages in the village and let them to a small and strictly controlled number of tenants. In some instances, the landlord of a closed parish was resident in that parish. He was regarded as ‘the squire’ of the village and typically exercised tight control over village affairs. In other cases, the landlord lived elsewhere. Such ‘absentee’ landlords were often seen as remote figures with less opportunity, and perhaps less inclination, to intervene in parish business.
This distinction between closed parishes with resident and absentee landlords is an important one and is often made. Nevertheless, the differences between them – economically, socially, politically and culturally – are seldom explored in detail. This article seeks to identify those features more clearly with reference to the county of Lincolnshire and to the parish of Humberston in particular. The analysis suggests that Mills’s model of closed parishes requires some minor revision and merits further development.
The Victoria County History of Lincolnshire
John Beckett

The Victoria County History (VCH) was founded in 1899 as a national project operating at a county level. It still exists, and in recent years has been active in counties proximate to Lincolnshire including Northamptonshire, Leicestershire, Derbyshire, Staffordshire, Nottinghamshire and Yorkshire East Riding. Lincolnshire has only one volume, which is still available to purchase, and a large part of its text is available free to view online.
To the eternal regret of librarians, the 1906 volume was seen as part of a ‘set’ and numbered accordingly as volume II. This has caused confusion to those who, unsurprisingly, ask what has happened to volume I, let alone (as promised in volume II) volumes III, IV, V and VI.
This article looks at the origins of the VCH in Lincolnshire, at the progress made, and its collapse in 1910.
Padley’s Great Map of Lincoln
Rob Wheeler
J. S. Padley's 20-inch to the mile plan of Lincoln was the principal subject of a publication – Historic Town Plans of Lincoln – prepared jointly by Dennis Mills and the present author. The introduction to that work included what was known about the publication of that plan.
In the two decades since that work was prepared, more has come to light, in particular about Padley's revision process and about the map's curious afterlife at a reduced scale. This paper is intended to set out this extra information.
As for Padley's motives for embarking on so detailed a map, nothing new has emerged: anyone interested in this aspect should refer to the original publication.
Interrogating the Growth of a City: Exploring Lincoln’s Building Application Database, 1866-1939
Andrew Walker

This article is directly inspired by the work of Dennis Mills with regard to one particular primary source, building application plans. These are closely linked to plotting the physical development of the city of Lincoln in the later nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
The study examines the reasons underpinning the submission of building plans in urban Britain, linked to legislative change, especially in the third quarter of the nineteenth century. Consideration is given to the survival of this primary source within Lincoln and to the development of a database containing key information drawn from these documents which is accessible on The Survey of Lincoln’s website.
Some consideration is given to the urban problems in Lincoln which, finally, prompted the city’s leaders to adopt the public health-related permissive legislation which led to the production of the city’s building plans. Due regard is paid to the limitations of the source.
The database is used to explore how building plans can be employed to illuminate various aspects linked to the growth of the city. This includes examination of the city’s architects and the extent and nature of their portfolios, the changing nature of the growth of the city over time, altering tastes in terms of construction of particular residential building types, the rise of female autonomy in property development and the impact of technological change upon residential development, notably through considering the rise of the motor car.
‘Inviting Inspection in Order, by Force of Example, to Give an Impulse to Improved Cultivation’: J. J. Mechi’s Experimental Farm at Tiptree in Essex and Networks of Improvers in Nineteenth-Century Lincolnshire
Shirley Brook

The high quality of farming for which Lincolnshire was noted in the nineteenth century was underpinned by a culture of improvement promoted through the information environment and social networks of Lincolnshire farmers and landowners.
The principal documentary source for this study is the visitors’ book for J. J. Mechi’s experimental farm at Tiptree in Essex, which is deposited in the British Library. Examination of the social connections of Lincolnshire visitors to Tiptree and the agricultural improvement activities in which they engaged, reveals complex inter-relationships.
The suggestion is made that nominative lists, such as Mechi’s visitors’ book, could be considered in conjunction with other similar types of evidence to further our understanding of the social networks which promoted and sustained the improved agriculture for which the county was famous in the mid-nineteenth century. Reference is made to a study, already undertaken, in which this has been done.
2022: Centenary of the Last Lincolnshire Yeoman
Michael Turner

Strictly speaking, the last Lincolnshire yeoman actually disappeared from view at midnight on 31 December 1925, but the act of parliament that determined this should happen was in 1922. And even then, this apparent precision only works by playing with language and the semantics of the word ‘yeoman’. So to be upfront and honest, what this article will do is identify the last copyhold tenant of a Lincolnshire manor who might or might not have self-identified as a yeoman.
‘Wizards of the Soil’: Constructing and Challenging the Institutional Rhetoric of an Asylum Farm, Lincolnshire County Asylum, 1852-1902
Sarah Holland

Lincolnshire County Pauper Asylum opened in 1852, a response to the 1845 County Asylums Act. Thirty acres were set aside for the farm upon which patients worked. Patient work was a central tenet in the move from mechanical restraint to moral and occupational therapy from the late eighteenth century through the nineteenth century. Individually and collectively, asylums and mental hospitals constructed elaborate narratives and rhetoric pertaining to the curative and remunerative value of their farms.
However, these narratives were often challenged by the experiences of patients working on the land. Using annual reports and case notes, this article explores the construction of an institutional rhetoric about the asylum farm and the conscious or unconscious challenges posed by the experiences of patients thereon.
By examining the use of farm work at the Lincolnshire County Asylum, an institution which had a high proportion of patients from agricultural and rural backgrounds, and the connections between the institutional rhetoric and the experiences of patients both within and outside of the asylum, this article adds a further dimension to our understanding of rural life and health in the county of Lincolnshire.
Co-operation in the Face of Conflict: The Lincoln Society and the First World War, 1914-15
Andrew J. H. Jackson

The First World War has been extensively documented and much studied. Nonetheless, there was still scope remaining for the centenary years to stimulate fresh exploration and the discovery of a great deal that was alternative, unfamiliar, and challenging. The home-front experience attracted particular and long-overdue attention.
Meanwhile, another history, that of the co-operative movement, has generated considerable general survey and analysis as well. However, it has left neglected deep local study, and understanding of the complexities, nuances, and contradictions borne out in individual society contexts.
This article, on the Lincoln Co-operative Society, brings these two lines of historical study together. It yields both new insight on the First World War at home, and different perspective on the shifting nature and enhanced significance of co-operation at this time of crisis, local, national, and international.
Dennis Mills: A Bibliography
Shirley Brook
Listing all the known publications of Dennis Mills 1955 – 2020.
The Historic Environment in Lincolnshire 2018: Archaeology and Historic Buildings
edited by Richard Watts
These notes cover archaeological work and surveys of historic buildings carried out in Lincolnshire largely as a result of development managed by the planning system. The work was carried out between 1 January and 31 December 2018.
Most historic environment work carried out in the county is funded by developers and their input is duly acknowledged. Full reports of this work have been deposited with the appropriate Historic Environment Record where they are available for consultation. A summary list of archaeological work for which the results are either entirely, or substantially, negative will be made available on the SLHA website rather than being published in this journal.
Assistance in the preparation of these notes was provided by Alison Williams of the HER in the Places Directorate of North Lincolnshire Council, and by Louise Jennings, the Heritage Officer for North-East Lincolnshire Council. In addition, the society is publishing here a series of notes, compiled by Lisa Brundle, on archaeological objects found in Lincolnshire that have been reported to the Portable Antiquities Scheme during 2018.
Lincolnshire Bibliography 2019
Cover Illustration: Lincoln High Street Two Years After the Coming of the Railway (c.1848) by John E. Ferneley (1782-1860)
Click for details --- No. 52 - 2017/18
No. 52 - 2017/18
SLHA Journal : Lincolnshire History and Archaeology
No. 52 - 2017/18

Published 2022

Dissolution and Reconstruction : Lincoln Lane Farmhouse, Sixhills, Lincolnshire – The Afterlife of Sixhills Priory and its People
David Stocker, Naomi Field, Ken Hollamby and Jenne Pape

This contribution presents the results of thirty months’ fieldwork at Lincoln Lane Farmhouse at Sixhills, undertaken by members of the Hainton Heritage Group, under the guidance of buildings historians from SLHA’s Building Recording Group, known as RUBL. Recording work was undertaken between January 2017 and May 2018 with an interim report presented to the building’s owners (Heneage Estates), and to the local community, at an event in the Heneage Arms, Hainton, on 23 June 2018.

The project was also reliant on contributions from several specialists, whose reports are contained in the final ‘grey literature’ report – lodged with the Lincolnshire Historic Environment Record in January 2020. Conclusions, from these reports are deployed below. Results from the dendrochronological project were of sufficient interest to generate a discrete sub-project, with additional fieldwork undertaken during the winter and spring of 2018–19. Only preliminary conclusions from this study are presented here, as it has been published separately.
The project revealed significant remains of the Gilbertine Priory at Sixhills, re-used in the fabric of Lincoln Lane Farmhouse during a major phase of refurbishment in the late seventeenth century. As well as early timbers, these remains included many sculpted twelfth-century stones, which offer, for the first time, some indication of the wealth and sophistication of that monastic house at the time of its foundation.

This paper concentrates, however, on a timber-framed domestic building, which we will argue was first erected in the late 1530s. The fortuitous survival of early Heneage estate records enables us to associate this house’s construction with the ‘retirement’, at the Dissolution, of the last Prior of Sixhills, James Wallis, and his sister Isobel, a nun at the same convent.

Evidence for the accommodation of the ex-religious in England is extremely rare, yet the Sixhills evidence – structural, documentary and topographical – allows us to understand something of the interpersonal relationships behind the dispersal of monastic assets into secular hands during this contested period.

The name of the property is also contested. The project has called it ‘Lincoln Lane Farmhouse’ but in recent years, the building has become known as ‘The Nunnery’, a name which appears to date only from the 1980s.

Donington on Bain: The Second Platform
Stewart Squires
Journal 48 included an article by the same author about the railway station at Donington on Bain. The single line of rails through the heart of the Lincolnshire Wolds between Bardney and Louth had opened fully in 1876 and this was one of the stations.
It had always been believed that the station had only one platform but a chance find of a Great Northern Railway plan of 1895 in Lincolnshire Archives showed beyond doubt that there had indeed been two and that consideration had been given to expansion of the station site. This was the subject of the first article.
Subsequent to publication and again as the result of a chance find, this time in the National Railway Museum in York, the details of an accident to a train at Donington on Bain in 1894 were discovered. This is the subject of this second article together with a discussion about a lack of clarity of aspects of the report, what it told about the operation of the line here, in conflict with regulation, and the legacy it left right up to final closure of the station in 1958.
The Cottagers of Dunsby
Peter Honniball
Historically, cottages were lowly dwellings, and the term 'cottager' has been used for many centuries to denote someone of lower status and income in the rural economy. The word is often equated with cottar/cotter which may be found recorded in Domesday book, although the use of that term is inconsistent, and the status of Domesday cotters and their prevalence through the shires is uncertain.
In late- and post-medieval times, a 'cottager' was a common expression for an agricultural worker and family who lived in a tied cottage and paid rent to their landlord by their labour on his land. In order to supplement their meagre existence, cottagers often owned beasts which they grazed on the common fields; until the Enclosure Acts ended that tradition in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
For many villages, enclosure signalled the end of the cottager. But, within the village economy, the skills and availability of this rural workforce were valued, and sometimes steps were taken to ensure the survival of cottagers by the provision of enough land to maintain their precarious economies.
This paper examines what is known of the cottagers of Dunsby, a small village north of Bourne, and how they survived the enclosure of the parish, finally completed in the 1770s, through to the sale and break-up of the estate in 1919.
The Archaeology of a Dynamic Landscape - Archaeological Works at Keadby Windfarm
Owain Scholma-Mason, Laura Bailey And Magnar Dalland
Archaeological works at Keadby Windfarm uncovered evidence for various natural and human processes that impacted the development of the area from the early Holocene through to the nineteenth century.
As part of a wide-ranging programme of works a series of paleoenvironmental investigations were undertaken ahead of the windfarm development, uncovering evidence for changes in the wider landscape occurring as result of the recession of the proglacial Lake Humber, and subsequent peat formation from the early Holocene through to the Iron Age. Tentative evidence for man-made impact on the environment was recorded during the Mesolithic and Neolithic.
More direct evidence for human impact on the area was uncovered in the form of a wooden sluice, the foundations of a pumping engine and warping channels associated with land reclamation and agricultural improvement in North Lincolnshire in the nineteenth century. These contrasting yet complementary strands of evidence add to the overall picture of a dynamic landscape shaped, in part, through natural and human processes.
The Historic Environment in Lincolnshire 2016: Archaeology and Historic Buildings
edited by Richard Watts
These notes cover archaeological work and surveys of historic buildings carried out in Lincolnshire largely as a result of development managed by the planning system. The work was carried out between 1 January and 31 December 2016.
Most historic environment work carried out in the county is funded by developers and their input is duly acknowledged. Full reports of this work have been deposited with the appropriate Historic Environment Record where they are available for consultation. A summary list of archaeological work for which the results are either entirely, or substantially, negative will be made available on the SLHA website rather than being published in this journal.
Assistance in the preparation of these notes was provided by Alison Williams of the HER in the Places Directorate of North Lincolnshire Council. In addition, the society is publishing here a series of notes, compiled by Lisa Brundle with Adam Daubney, on archaeological objects found in Lincolnshire that have been reported to the Portable Antiquities Scheme during 2016.
Vested Interests in the Establishment of Railways Through Lincoln
R C Wheeler
The rather complicated story of the development of railways through Lincoln in 1844-9 is clarified if one remembers that the property-owning classes in Lincolnshire had invested heavily in the improvement of the Witham Navigation and wished to protect the value of their investment. Richard Ellison, Esq, of Sudbrooke Holme was even more dependent on his income from the Fossdyke Navigation.
The promotion by Ellison of the Wakefield, Lincoln & Boston Railway offered a mechanism by which these investments could be safeguarded.  Radical politicians correctly saw this as the extraction of 'rents', and this contributed to the bitter conflict between competing schemes for railways to the north. Ellison and his allies won that battle and in comparison to navigation investors elsewhere in the country they achieved a particularly favourable outcome.
The Lost Settlement of Burg Found?
David Roffe
Burg is one of the twelve or so settlements recorded in the Lincolnshire folios of Domesday Book that remain to be located. The place does not appear in later sources for the county, but the tenurial history of the three fees that held land there suggests a location close to the site of the church of St Peter in Kirby La Thorpe, now marked by vestiges of tofts and crofts and possibly referenced in the road name Bargate. As such, Burg can be seen as an element in an early complex of estates centred on Sleaford with a primary defensive role.
Tealby Thorpe Water Mill
Jon A Sass
Tealby Thorpe watermill (TF 15039002), one of a dozen mills that once worked on the river Rase, occupies a medieval mill site. The oldest parts of the current mill and adjoining house probably date from the seventeenth century; most other elements were constructed in the nineteenth century.
The machinery of the mill, which is still complete and in functioning condition, is powered by a fifteen-foot, breast-shot waterwheel. Variable sluice settings allow the wheel to be driven effectively when the water level drops in the mill pond, an unusual feature. The mill has under-driven French and Peak stones and there is a supplementary drive to operate two crushers and a kibbler.
A detached building on the site once housed a bakery, dairy, cow house and stables. Details are known of all the millers and owners from the early eighteenth century until the mill ceased to operate commercially in the 1960s.
The Evolution of St Peter’s Hill, Grantham from the Eleventh to Nineteenth Centuries
Ruth Crook
Research has recently been undertaken to establish the significance of St Peter’s Chapel and the area to the south of Grantham on which it once stood. That area, now called St Peter’s Hill, has been closely connected with the neighbouring parish of Spittlegate and its associated vills of Houghton and Walton for a millennium. This article provides a fuller account of the development of these settlements and their place in the history of the district.
Ferries of the Fossdyke and Witham
Stewart Squires
For many centuries travel to and from large parts of Lincolnshire was restricted by the need to cross the county's rivers over which the number of bridges was very limited. For the major rivers this had to be done mainly with the use of ferries, the last of which went out of use in the 1960s. Lincolnshire had tidal ferries over the rivers Humber, Trent and lower Witham.
This paper looks at the non-tidal ferries over the Fossdyke and Witham, as well as two on the Barlings Eau close to its junction with the river Witham at Bardney. The endnotes will show that much has been written individually about these ferries, but the subject has never been drawn together to give a more comprehensive understanding.
Stairway to Heaven: The Scala Celi Indulgence in Tudor Lincolnshire
Brian Hodgkinson
The lucrative Scala Celi indulgence, whereby a soul was allegedly transported directly to Heaven without languishing in Purgatory, probably dates from the fourteenth century. To Church historians, indulgences were very much part of the spiritual environment of the medieval and early Tudor periods.
The sale of such pardons significantly increased the finances of the Vatican treasury. This was especially notable during the early sixteenth century, when the construction of the new St Peter’s basilica in Rome was underway. The Scala Celi had earlier spread around continental Europe, eventually arriving in England during the reign of Edward IV, largely through royal patronage.
Supported by Henry VII, the pardon was licensed to two significant organisations: the Augustinian friars and the influential Guild of the Blessed Virgin Mary (the Lady Guild) in Boston in Lincolnshire.
Using surviving early-sixteenth-century wills as the primary source, this article discusses the influence that the Scala achieved in early Tudor England, principally within Lincolnshire, and its final demise as part of the English Reformation process.
Function and Spectacle: Water Towers on the Hainton Estate
Eric Newton
Small brick towers housing water tanks and associated pumping equipment were built in the late nineteenth century at two Hainton farms by the Hainton Estate. Their locations are close to once reliable water sources at a natural spring line in the underlying Tealby Limestone.
A variety of pumps were used to lift water to the raised steel tanks: at one site a semi-rotary hand pump was followed by pumps powered by oil engines and electricity; at the other a similar hand pump was replaced by pumps first powered by a wind engine and then by electricity. Some of the essential pipework between pumps and tanks is incomplete and its interpretation is speculative.
The towers, which are well-constructed in yellow brick with pyramidal roofs, remain interesting and attractive landscape features.
The Historic Environment in Lincolnshire 2017: Archaeology and Historic Buildings
edited by Richard Watts
These notes cover archaeological work and surveys of historic buildings carried out in Lincolnshire largely as a result of development managed by the planning system. The work was carried out between 1 January and 31 December 2017.
Most historic environment work carried out in the county is funded by developers and their input is duly acknowledged. Full reports of this work have been deposited with the appropriate Historic Environment Record where they are available for consultation. A summary list of archaeological work for which the results are either entirely, or substantially, negative will be made available on the SLHA website rather than being published in this journal.
Assistance in the preparation of these notes was provided by Alison Williams of the HER in the Places Directorate of North Lincolnshire Council, and by Louise Jennings, the Heritage Officer for North-East Lincolnshire Council. In addition, the society is publishing here a series of notes, compiled by Lisa Brundle, on archaeological objects found in Lincolnshire that have been reported to the Portable Antiquities Scheme during 2017.
Lincolnshire Bibliography 2017 and 2018
Cover Illustration: Langrick Ferry on the river Witham near Boston, by Peter de Wint (1784-1849)

Click for details --- No. 51 - 2016
No. 51 - 2016
SLHA Journal : Lincolnshire History and Archaeology
No. 51 - 2016

Published 2019

‘Unfit for the Residence of a Minister’: Did the Clergy Ever Live at Old Church Cottage, Aubourn?

Jenne Pape et al

As part of a wider Trent Valley Project, the Society’s Building Recording Group (RUBL) surveyed and recorded Old Church Cottage, Aubourn (SK92732 62748). Dendrochronology dated this humble, apparently medieval, timber-framed building to 1743, raising questions about the character of the vicars’ ‘official’ residence at Aubourn throughout the entire post-medieval period.

Study of plentiful documentary sources reveals continuous resistance by vicars and curates to living in the accommodation provided in the village, from 1526 right through until 1855, often coinciding with Aubourn vicarage being held in plurality.

Evidence provided by the building recording programme, when read alongside the documentation, enables an understanding why the vicars were evidently unwilling to reside in their parsonage, and instead viewed it as a source of rental income.

The building recording programme also illustrates an unexpected conservative attitude to building materials and techniques prevalent in Lincolnshire’s Trent valley lowlands in the mid-eighteenth century.

Exeter Down, Stamford: An Early to Middle Iron Age Enclosed Settlement with Evidence of Iron Smelting
Patrick Daniel

An enclosed Iron Age farmstead, with two small iron smelting furnaces nearby, was excavated on the western edge of Stamford in 2014. Two areas were examined: Area 1 contained a sequence of three roundhouses all with south-east facing entrances. The latest was set within a 0.3 hectare enclosure defined by a ditch with a probable internal bank.

Pottery and radiocarbon dates indicate the settlement was occupied from approximately the fifth to second centuries BC, i.e., from the early–middle Iron Age transition, to the end of the middle Iron Age.

Field boundary ditches with an associated area of pitting including the remains of two iron smelting furnaces were exposed to the north of the enclosure, in Area 2. The dates of pottery from Area 2, and the presence of ironworking debris in settlement-related features in Area 1, suggest that both areas were in use at the same time.

Such early evidence of iron smelting is important and gains significance from being found in conjunction with traces of domestic buildings, enclosure features, and assemblages of pottery, animal bone and environmental remains.

Brickmaking in East Halton: An Uncommon Multi-Chamber Kiln
Ken Redmore

Two adjacent sites on the Humber Bank at East Halton were the bases for clay-related industries which peaked in the first decades of the twentieth century. One site was developed as a large brickyard which fired a wide range of bricks and tiles; the other provided clay for the manufacture of cement.

The brick kiln which survives on the first site (TA 156 213) is a downdraught eight-chamber kiln which operated on a semi-continuous basis. It is a rare kiln and the only example of its type known to have operated in Lincolnshire. It was built in the early twentieth century to replace two Scotch kilns in a brickyard that had been in existence for about fifty years.

Most of the bricks and tiles made in the kiln, by the firm of Wilkinson and Houghton, were transported down the coast to Grimsby and Cleethorpes until the closure of the brickyard in 1939–40.

The kiln design is derived from the Staffordshire type but some of the features may relate solely to its uncommon mode of operation and are not fully understood. A detailed survey of the whole structure has not been possible and, significantly, the runs of flues below ground have not been examined.

Sales of bricks and tiles from the yard in the 1920s provide some indication of the frequency with which the kiln was fired.

Landscape Evolution at Wrangle from Late Saxon Times to AD 1600
Ian G Simmons

Several sources of evidence are brought together in an attempt at a synthesis of the landscapes of medieval Wrangle. The final map rests upon data and inferences from The Ordnance Survey maps of various dates, a manuscript map of part of the coast from 1606 (reproduced as an Appendix to the paper), an aerial photograph from near the end of WW2, Lidar (now available from and many archived documents, of which the charters of Waltham Holy Cross from the late-twelfth century are dominant.

These have been transcribed and translated in a single volume, which massively improves their utility to a wide range of interpreters. The combination of these sources confirms the gradual narrowing of Wrangle Haven until it was a managed river, and the key role of salt waste in forming The Tofts which hereabouts in medieval times were the first line of defence against the sea.

The dominance of Waltham Abbey tenants over the area today known as The Low Grounds seems secure, with a mixture of dry land, former turbaries and, perhaps, remnants of salt-marsh.

Features still needing more exploration include the King's Hill, High Street (whose older name was The Sea-dike Path), and the distribution of raised land beyond Wrangle Haven to the south-west.

Two Pumped Water Supply Systems for the Gardens of Scawby Hall
Eric D Newton

In the nineteenth century a three-throw force pump powered by waterwheel was installed alongside a lake in the Scawby Hall’s park to supply water to the ornamental gardens.

This system was replaced by a hydraulic ram pump in the early twentieth century; it was situated close to the original pump chamber and used the settling tanks and much of the pipework of the earlier installation.

Water was pumped from the lakeside site to an elevated storage tank built above a stable block a short distance from the gardens alongside the Hall. Water pressure from the tank was sufficient to operate a fountain.

Prior to a public supply being available, it is believed that drinking water for the Hall and stables was obtained from long-established wells, not from the pumped supplies from the lake.

Boston Harbour Dues, Oats, Coal, and the Budget of 1831
R C Wheeler

Registers listing payments of harbour dues provide useful evidence on the trade of the port of Boston in the early nineteenth century that complements other sources. After explaining the nature of the registers, the paper examines the two main commodities passing through the port, grain and coal.

At the beginning of the period, the trade in grain is dominated by oats. This appears to result from the cultivation of newly cleared fenland, which yielded massive crops of oats and cole but was ill-suited for other grains.

As the abnormal fertility of the soil declined, more normal crop rotations were introduced and the surplus of oats declined. This is reflected in the port statistics. For coal, several developments in the 1820s and 1830s upset the pattern of trade; the most important of these was the removal in 1831 of the tax on coal carried coastwise.

This led to a change in the market shares of the different coal-producing regions supplying Boston; for Yorkshire coal, there was a shift from inland waterways to coastal shipping. This produced a massive fall in the traffic on the Witham, which the Witham Company countered by introducing drawbacks for coal and grain carried the full length of the navigation.

Excavation at the Car Dyke, Washingborough, Lincolnshire
Ashley Tuck et al.

In 2015, Wessex Archaeology undertook an excavation during the installation of flood alleviation pipes through a scheduled section of the Car Dyke near Washingborough (Scheduled Monument number 1004923).

The Car Dyke is thought to be of Romano-British date and comprises an artificial water channel flanked by raised banks. The excavations revealed the profile of the south bank and a contemporary drainage ditch. The main channel of the Car Dyke lay outside the excavation area.

A possible ‘barrow run’ was recorded across the bank. Radiocarbon dates and good quality environmental samples from the Romano-British and early medieval periods were obtained from the contemporary drainage ditch.

Enclosure and the Cottager : The ‘Cottage System’ in North Lincolnshire
Martin Watkinson

It is often claimed that the enclosure of common fields and waste land deprived many poor cottagers of access to pasture and other resources upon which much of their livelihood depended. Yet, in parts of north Lincolnshire, a number of landlords and farmers continued to provide their labourers with pasture for cows long after enclosure had taken place.

During the 1790s and 1800s, commentators praised these arrangements and pressed for their adoption elsewhere. Despite this, the so-called ‘cottage system’ was in retreat in many parts of north Lincolnshire by the middle of the nineteenth century.

This paper seeks to establish the nature, extent and longevity of the so-called ‘cottage system’ in north Lincolnshire and uses the example of Humberston near Grimsby to consider the motives that led landlords to provide their tenants with cow pastures and the benefits that cottagers derived from them. The cow pastures in Humberston are one of the best-documented and longest-surviving in the county.

An Early Eighteenth-century Pre-enclosure Estate Rent Roll: Branston, c. 1740
Dennis and Joan Mills

This article is based on a rent roll relating to an estate of about 3,400 acres at Branston, a parish of about 5,600 acres some four miles south-east of Lincoln. It yields information not only on farm sizes, but also on the different landscape types that succeeded each other from west to east: heath, open field, moor, wood and fen, the latter extending from the Car Dyke down to the river Witham.

There are thirty-eight tenants’ names on the roll, at the top of which were eleven tenants who could be described as major farmers, all having shares in the sheep walk and in the open field. They paid rents from £20 to £56. Ten lesser tenants paid rents of £20 or below, mostly below £12.

Farm sizes were high for the period with both forms of the average close to 125 acres, probably the result of Branston having poor soil such that large farms were necessary to allow tenants to get a decent living.

Black Springs Water Supply Plant, Thoresway

Eric D Newton

Water from Black Springs in Thoresway was collected in a lake and pumped to Grange Farm, 1.4km away. A triple-action force pump, driven by a 3.0m diameter cast iron waterwheel, is housed in a brick-built subterranean chamber alongside the lake.

Much of this machinery, in use from the 1880s to 1960s, is still intact though in poor condition. Pumped water from Black Springs was collected in a pair of tanks in an outbuilding at Grange Farm for distribution around the farmstead.

The Historic Environment in Lincolnshire 2015: Archaeology and Historic Buildings
Edited by Richard Watts

The notes below cover archaeological work and surveys of historic buildings carried out in Lincolnshire largely as a result of development managed by the planning system. The work was carried out between 1 January and 31 December 2015.

Most historic environment work carried out in the county is funded by developers and their input is duly acknowledged. Full reports of this work have been deposited with the appropriate Historic Environment Record where they are available for consultation.

A summary list of archaeological work for which the results are either entirely, or substantially, negative will be made available on the SLHA website rather than being published in this journal.

Assistance in the preparation of these notes was provided by Alison Williams of the HER in the Places Directorate of North Lincolnshire Council. In addition, the society is publishing here a series of notes, compiled by Lisa Brundle with Adam Daubney, on archaeological objects found in Lincolnshire that have been reported to the Portable Antiquities Scheme during 2015.

Book Reviews and Bibliography

Cover Illustration: St Botolph’s from the Witham, Boston, 1857, by Henry Baines (1823–1894)

Click for details --- No. 50 - 2015
No. 50 - 2015
SLHA Journal : Lincolnshire History and Archaeology
No. 50 - 2015

Published 2018

Lincolnshire's Middle Trent Valley: The Building Stock Before Enclosure.
The Case of Manor Farm House, Thorpe-on-the-Hill

David Stocker et al

The Society's building recording group, known as RUBL (Recording and Understanding the Buildings of Lincolnshire) completed their survey and analysis of Manor Farm House, Thorpe on the Hill and published the results in a paper in Vernacular Architecture, Volume 46(2015) pp.40-65. For the benefit of LHA readers, that paper is here reproduced in full, with the permission of the Vernacular Architecture Group.

This contribution originates in the observation that there are a very few standing timber-framed buildings in the county's Middle Trent Valley. The paper is the first from a larger project exploring this absence. It addresses the suggestion that, although there were once similar numbers of vernacular buildings of this type as elsewhere in the north-east Midlands, this part of Lincolnshire was so greatly affected by a great rebuilding following enclosure between c.1750 and c.1850 that virtually all earlier box-framed structures were replaced in brick. Preliminary survey by the group suggests that this may be true, but it also reveals that some members of this earlier generation of box framed buildings may survive disarticulated, as re-used timbers in those enclosure-period farmsteads that replaced them. Consequently, the group has undertaken a detailed analysis of the timbers re-used in the enclosure-period farmhouse at Thorpe on the Hill in order to assess techniques for reconstructing the frames of predecessor buildings.

Following extensive recording work, the outlines of two closely connected predecessor structures have been reconstructed and dated - through techniques including dendrochronology - to the mid-fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries. It is suggested that they were both ranges from the previous Manor Farm House, which occupied the same footprint as that still standing.

Manuring the Land: Baltic Bale Seals and Peruvian Guano Seals from Lincolnshire
Adam Daubney

Over 75,000 objects discovered in Lincolnshire have been reported to the Portable Antiquities Scheme (PAS) since its inception in 1997. This paper draws attention to two types of modern lead seals which provide evidence for manuring practices that are otherwise intermittently mentioned in documentary sources.

The first type of seal emanates from the Baltic and provides further information on the flax and hemp trade in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. The second type emanates from Peru and provides evidence for the import and use of guano as a source of fertiliser Both types of seal are hitherto unrecorded in local museum collections, and are argued here to be a valuable new addition to our understanding of the agricultural and industrial history of rural Lincolnshire.

Nineteenth Century Chalk Quarrying and Lime Burning in the South-Eastern Lincolnshire Wolds
Peter Wynn

The chalk of the Lincolnshire Wolds was a convenient material that could be burnt to provide lime for agricultural or building purposes. During the nineteenth century quarrying and associated lime burning took place at various scales throughout the Wolds.

This article examines the mainly small to medium sized operations in the south eastern Wolds. This was an area well placed to supply lime for agricultural use in the coastal marshes. The opening of the East Lincolnshire Railway in 1848 enabled the industry to exploit a larger customer base.

The term 'lime burner' could refer to different groups of people: the owner of the chalk pits and kilns and the operatives who actually undertook the physical tasks involved in producing the burnt lime. However in the study area both groups tended to have an intermittent and part time involvement with the industry. This leads the author to question the generally held view that by the mid-nineteenth century most lime kilns were of the perpetual' type. Probably as a result of the agricultural depression, the industry in this area declined from the 1870s onwards.

The Double Nave of Caythorpe Church and Marian Devotion
Alister Mutch

This article places the distinctive double-naved medieval church of St Vincent, Caythorpe, South Kesteven, in its architectural and social context. Attention is drawn to the importance of the de Vesci family, the major landowners at the time of construction, in the patronage of reforming religious orders.

Their devotion to the Blessed Virgin Mary is related to the Marian iconography that survives at the church. Architectural features, contrasted with other double-naved churches in both England and mainland Europe, suggest aborted plans to make the church part of a religious foundation.

The Holland Causeway and Bridge End Priory: Piety, People and Communications in the Lincolnshire Fenland
Brian Hodgkinson

This paper discusses the history of the Holland Causeway in relation to both its maintenance and its connectivity with the local population within its fenland setting, straddling the border between Holland and Kesteven. Crossing the often flooded landscape between Bridge End and Donington in Holland, the approximately four-mile causeway (forming part of the present A52) featured numerous bridges and culverts, and consequently was difficult  and expensive to maintain.

The financial burden for this ongoing maintenance largely fell onto the inadequate shoulders of Bridge End Priory, the smallest and poorest house of the Gilbertine order. This is an account of the priory's battle to preserve the vital passageway across the local topography that was for all intents a swamp, and to extract enough income from tolls to maintain the roadway and also the monastery itself.

A Reappraisal of Lincoln Tank Production in 1916
Gwyn Evans

Lincoln's fame as the birthplace of the tank during the Great War is well-known, as is the crucial role played by William Foster and Company of the Wellington Foundry. The role played by other Lincoln businesses in the tank story has been less well documented. Newly available archival material relating to Robey and Company reveals that the firm was much more involved in the production of the first order for tanks than has hitherto been realised, even to the extent of building some tanks itself.

This paper details for the first time Robey's place in the production of the early tanks, the reasons why the firm became involved and why this did not continue for later tank production. It also sheds light on the situation at William Foster and Company in 1916. The paper ends by identifying the implications of this new knowledge for the identification of the only remaining Tank Mark I, now preserved at the Tank Museum, Bovington.

Stamford's Brazenose Gateway
N J Sheehan

Dating from the thirteenth century, the Brazenose Gateway in Stamford is one of the town's oldest surviving architectural structures. Reputedly the entrance gate to Brazenose College, and apocryphally associated with the transient university established in the town in 1333 by dissident students and masters from Oxford, the gateway is a Grade I listed structure and a Scheduled Monument. Taking its name from the nose-shaped brass knocker on its wooden door, it was preserved when the medieval college building was pulled down in 1688.

The original knocker was removed to Brasenose College in Oxford in 1890 and was replaced by a replica in 1961. The gateway has been rebuilt several times over the centuries. The original design has been largely retained except for variations in the configuration of the apex of the arch. This article discusses the origins of the gateway and documents changes to it, through a series of images from 1727 to the present.

Holdingham Watermill
Ken Hollamby, Chris Page, Ken Redmore and Jon Sass

Holdingham watermill, standing alongside the Sleaford Navigation, was built in the 1790s and extended in the 1860s. Much of the original wooden gearing was replaced by cast iron in the 1840s and this improved the reliability and performance of the mill. The 1860s development also brought in a steam engine and increased the number of stones.

The mill was then an excellent example of an efficient rural watermill but its profitability was soon undermined by much more efficient steam powered roller mills in Sleaford and elsewhere. Milling at Holdingham continued spasmodically after 1880 and ceased altogether in the 1950s when the building, complete with all the nineteenth-century machinery and fittings, was effectively mothballed.

The Historic Environment in Lincolnshire 2014: Archaeology and Historic Buildings

The notes cover archaeological work and surveys of historic buildings carried out in Lincolnshire largely as a result of development managed by the planning system. The work was carried out between 1 January and 31 December 2014. Most historic environment work carried out in the county is funded by developers and their input is duly acknowledged.

Full reports of this work have been deposited with the appropriate Historic Environment Record where they are available for consultation. A summary list of archaeological work for which the results are either entirely, or substantially, negative will be made available on the SLHA website rather than being published in this journal. Assistance in the preparation of these notes was provided by Alison Williams of the HER in the Places Directorate of North Lincolnshire Council and Hugh Winfield of the HER in the Planning Service of North-East Lincolnshire Council. In addition, the society is publishing here a series of notes, compiled by Susheela Burford with Adam Daubney, on archaeological objects found in Lincolnshire that have been reported to the Portable Antiquities Scheme during 2014.

Book Reviews and Bibliography

Cover Illustration: The Lime Kiln, by John Joseph Barker (1824-1904)

Click for details --- No. 49 - 2014
No. 49 - 2014
SLHA Journal : Lincolnshire History and Archaeology
No. 49 - 2014

Published 2017

A History of Michael Penistan Junior, Agricultural Engineer, Lincoln
Chris Page

This paper discusses the incentives and opportunities for the foundation of Michael Penistan's engineering business. It explores the difficulties that such small firms experienced in acquiring financial capital to enable them to develop ideas and open up new markets.

The paper reviews the type and range of products that his company produced and his marketing strategy. It charts Penistan's move from the grocery business into engineering, initially with success, but growth resulted in heavy financial commitments and this eventually led to disaster and bankruptcy.

Penistan's social commitments are appraised, showing his interest in local politics and the improvement of his city. The circumstances surrounding the collapse of his business are discussed noting the sympathy that was expressed by fellow councillors and business leaders.

This account is set within the backdrop of a rapidly growing city and an expanding economy, but markets were becoming more competitive as the century progressed and Penistan was one of many who suffered a similar fate.

Ludford, Lincolnshire: Small-Scale Investigations of a Roman Roadside Settlement
Richard Bradley, Robin Jackson and Steve Willis

Exploratory work for the purposes of supporting an application for a Higher Level Environmental Stewardship Scheme was carried out by Worcestershire Archaeology in 2012 and 2013 across a field believed to include the site of an Iron Age and Roman roadside settlement close to Ludford, Lincolnshire.

This involved contour mapping, test pitting, geophysical survey and small-scale trial trenching. The potential extents and character of the remains were determined and the level of preservation of deposits under threat from arable cultivation was assessed.

Combined with the existing knowledge of the surrounding archaeology and previous work in the vicinity, the investigations provided important further evidence to support the identification of the site as that of a Romano-British 'small town'.

As a result of the work, an agreement was put in place with the landowner to limit damage through cultivation on deposits at the site for at least ten years.

The Fossdyke Navigation, 1670-1826
R C Wheeler

The Fossdyke is an artificial cut of great antiquity which connects Lincoln to the River Trent. Its early history is known principally from complaints about inadequate depth of water, and this theme recurs persistently up to the 1820s, when the complainants instigated a chancery suit against the lessees of the Fossdyke.

The paper covers the period from the passing of a private act that governed the navigation up to the start of the chancery suit, and seeks to show that the problems of lack of water were by no means the result of neglect but stemmed from the incompatibility between the drainage and navigation functions. This incompatibility was eventually resolved by the provision of a separate system of drainage for the low lands adjoining the Fossdyke. The problems in achieving this were not so much engineering ones as political.

The paper describes the mechanism set up to protect the interests of riparian landowners and its inadequacies. The real power of the landowners lay in their ability to impede necessary developments by opposing a further private act. It was this that caused the lessee of the Fossdyke to break the log-jam by buying out the proprietor who was most strongly opposed to an independent drainage.

By their shrewd deals, the Fossdyke lessees not only secured for themselves a sizeable income; they also fostered a massive increase in trade between central Lincolnshire and the industrial north, a trade which provided the markets for agricultural growth in Lincolnshire and which also provided the flour and malt on which the workers of Lancashire and the West Riding depended.

A Note on 'Wulfwig's Purchase': A Red Herring in Louth's Historiography
Paul Everson and David Stocker

Using the evidence of Domesday Book, this article proposes that — contrary to some modern historians' accounts — the gift of a group of Lindsey estates to bishop Wulfwig of Dorchester-on-Thames (d. 1067) did not include Louth, and did not form the basis of the bishop of Lincoln's major post-Conquest estate there, which had far older origins.

This proposition opens the way for the town at Louth to be considered as a foundation of the tenth-century rather than a later eleventh-century initiative: a proposition that we explore fully elsewhere.

Mowbray and Co Ltd, Brewers of Grantham (1837-1952)
Adam Cartwright

Established in 1828 at their brewery in Grantham, Mowbray's supplied beer, wines and spirits to over 200 pubs across Lincolnshire and surrounding counties for over one hundred years. Mowbray's started as a family business but within twenty years other local businessmen had taken control.

After a period of stagnation the firm was incorporated in 1887 as Mowbray and Co Ltd under the leadership of managing director Arthur Hutchinson. He expanded the new company, buying pubs and taking over competitors, such as Dawber's of Lincoln and Hunt's of Stamford.

The effects of enforced pub closures and conscription in the First World War are discussed and the challenges of the inter-war years explored, including the drive to build new pubs, especially on housing estates.

There is a summary of the many works outings and galas which the company provided. An account of Second World War bomb damage to pubs and the brewery is included and the company's most popular houses are listed by beer volume sales.

In 1952, Mowbray's Brewery was sold to national brewer I W Green, which itself was absorbed by the brewing giant Whitbreads in 1962. The local brewing industry has declined but some of the brewery buildings in Grantham still survive.

A New Perspective on a Roman Phallic Carving from South Kesteven, Lincolnshire
Adam Parker

The Portable Antiquities Scheme recorded a rare discovery of a phallic carving from Braceby and Sapperton, Lincolnshire, in 2008. It is recorded as a phallic carving, depicting an erect penis with testicles below and vagina above'.

In light of comparable evidence both within Britain and the Roman Empire, this short paper argues that it instead depicts a popular apotropaic image in which an erect phallus is physically attacking an image of the Evil Eye.

The imagery depicted, although a well-established 'scene', is a unique interpretation of this type in Roman Britain. Although this carving is unstratified, phallic carvings are often used in liminal places, providing a constant, passive protection without need for additional interaction.

The Finding of the Witham Shield
R C Wheeler

The Witham Shield is a spectacular Iron Age object found in the bed of the River Witham in 1826. It would be useful to know how the find-spot relates to the contemporary landscape, in particular to the places where there is evidence for large-scale ritual deposition.

This paper examines the earliest reports of the finding of the shield to establish the fullest possible account. A fairly precise date is known and this is linked to the chronology of the improvements taking place at the time.

The shield is first recorded in the possession of the surveyor J S Padley, and the paper offers an explanation for how this came about. Most usefully, the shield was described as the property of Humphrey Sibthorp, Rector of Washingborough, and a knowledge of the rectorial land in that parish makes it possible to associate the find with six short lengths of river. One of these lengths is close to the Fiskerton Causeway, a site where two successive excavations have uncovered a rich variety of items that appear to be ritual deposits.

The nature of the shield is such that it could have been carried a short distance by the current; however, the nearest of the identified lengths of river is upstream of the causeway rather than downstream.

Pursuing the Pomerium: The Ritual and Reality of the Sacred Boundary of Lindum Colonia
Antony Lee

The pomerium was the ancient boundary surrounding Rome, believed to have originated as the wall that Remus contemptuously leapt over, only to be slain by his brother Romulus. Distinct from the defensive walls, the pomerium formed an important spiritual threshold in the Roman imagination and had a tangible role to play in the governance and religious rites of the city.

Roman authors such as Dionysius of Halicarnassus tell us that towns across Rome's provinces were also imbued with such sacred boundaries at their foundation, and the Coloniae are likely to have been among them. It took the form of the ploughing of a ritual furrow, the sulcus primigenius, positioned where the town walls would subsequently be constructed.

Archaeological evidence for this practice is scant; hardly surprising considering the faint impact left by a plough furrow and its self-destructive relationship with the walls. Nevertheless, artistic, numismatic, epigraphic and literary evidence exists to suggest that such ritual boundaries were perceived to exist and affected the daily lives of the residents of provincial Coloniae.

The existence of the pomerium at Lincoln has been presumed in some earlier studies, but the practicalities of its creation and the impact it may have had on the religious life of the established town have not previously been explored. This paper attempts to demonstrate that the creation of the sulcus primigenius is compatible with our understanding of the foundation of the Colonia and the construction of its defences.

Evidence for the original extent of the pomerium and the issue of whether the pomerium was enlarged when the lower enclosure was completed are discussed.

Women Munition Workers in Lincoln during the First World War
Ann Yeates-Langley

During the period 2014 to 2018 the SLHA are publishing various articles and books describing the county's involvement in the First World War and its impact on Lincolnshire people. The role of women in the munitions factories of the county is a significant aspect of this study.

By 1914 Lincoln, Grantham, Gainsborough and Stamford were important engineering centres and during the war produced a great many munitions including aircraft and, most famously, played a major role in the development of the tank. Large numbers of women were employed in the munitions factories to take the place of men who had joined the armed forces. Now, a century later, none of these women are alive.

In the early 1990s Ann Yeates-Langley (then Ann Wright) carried out research (for her M.Ed. with Nottingham University) during the course of which she interviewed a number of elderly women who had worked in munitions factories in Lincoln.

One outcome of this research was an article recording those interviews published in 1997 in the former journal East Midland Historian (EMH), Volume 7. In view of the important contribution that women munitions workers made to Lincoln's involvement in the First World War, and the lack of women's voices in history, Ann's article is re-published here with the permission of the last editor of the former EMH.

The Historic Environment in Lincolnshire 2013: Archaeology and Historic Buildings

Cover illustration: Roman Canal, Lincolnshire - water colour painting of the Fossdyke by Peter de Wint (1784-1849)

Click for details --- No. 48 - 2013
No. 48 - 2013
SLHA Journal : Lincolnshire History and Archaeology
No. 48 - 2013
Click for details --- No. 47 - 2012
No. 47 - 2012
SLHA Journal : Lincolnshire History and Archaeology
No. 47 - 2012

Published 2015

Thoughts on the Roman Bridge at Lincoln
Michael Lewis

Country House Tramways: Belton House, Harlaxton Manor and Stoke Rochford Hall
Stewart Squires

Soulby Sons & Winch Ltd
Adam Cartwright

Skegness, Mablethorpe and Cleethorpes : Contrasts of Land Ownership and Investment in the Development of Seaside Resorts
Ruth Neller

The Rise of Clayton and Shuttleworth
Rob Wheeler

The Historic Environment in Lincolnshire 2011: archaeology and historic buildings
Mark Bennet

Industrial Archaeology Notes

* Wragby Railway Goods Yard - Sleaford U3A Group

* Gunby Hall Water Supply - Eric D Newton 

* Horncastle Navigation: Poling Holes - Ken Redmore

* Withcall Farm Water Supply - Eric D Newton

Click for details --- No. 46 - 2011
No. 46 - 2011
SLHA Journal : Lincolnshire History and Archaeology
No. 46 - 2011

Published 2014

Tealby, the Taifali and the End of Roman Lincolnshire
Thomas Green

Skegness: a History of Railway Excursions
Ruth Neller

John Stokeld: Life and Works
Michael Czajkowski

Lincoln, Sewerage and Government Inspectors
Beryl George

Industrial Archaeology Notes

* Remains of FIDO at RAF Metheringham
   Ken Redmore

* Former Water Mill at 1 Lincoln Road, Branston
   Stewart Squires

* Steppingstone Bridge, Spalding
   Stewart Squires

* Woodhall Junction Urinal
   Stewart Squires

The Historic Environment in LIncolnshire 2010: Archaeology and Historic Buildings

Click for details --- No. 45 - 2010
No. 45 - 2010
SLHA Journal : Lincolnshire History and Archaeology
No. 45 - 2010

Published 2012

Archaeological Excavations on Land to the East of Cartergate, Grimsby
Michael Rowe

Rainforths of Lincoln
Adam Cartwright

Reminiscences of the Open Road: Tricycling to London with Joseph Fowler
John Hardy

The Greetwell Ironstone Mine
Stewart Squires

Updated References to Paper Mills in Lincolnshire, 1600 to 2010
Daven Chamberlain

Industrial Archaeology Notes

  • Branston Hall Gasworks
    Ken Redmore
  • Water Supply at Grange Farm, Langton-by-Spilsby
    Chris Lester and Ken Redmore
  • Castle Bytham Lime Kiln
    Stewart Squires
  • A Wheelwright's Tyre Oven at Horncastle
    Chris Lester and Ken Redmore

The Historic Environment in LIncolnshire, 2009 : Archaeology and Historic Buildings

Click for details --- No. 44 - 2009
No. 44 - 2009
SLHA Journal : Lincolnshire History and Archaeology
No. 44 - 2009

Published 2011

Caistor Canal

Christopher Padley

Previously published accounts of the funding, construction, operation and demise of this canal are incomplete and contain inaccuracies. This article, based on primary sources, aims to remedy these deficiencies and present a comprehensive history of the canal.

The canal, completed in c1794, attempted to link Caistor, an important market and administrative centre, with the river Ancholme and thence to the Humber and east coast and Yorkshire trading centres. However, for financial reasons, the canal terminated at Moortown, some three miles (and over 100 feet in elevation) short of Caistor. It closed in c1860. Some of the stone-built locks survive in surprisingly complete condition.

Lincolnshire Tickets, Checks and Passes of the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries
John T Turner
Full-sized images of some 80 items (mostly small circular discs; some of metal, some of plastic) from Lincolnshire firms, inns, transport, police and farms, with brief explanatory notes.

Lawyering and Politics in Lincolnshire: the Smith-Heathcote Connection, 1760s to 1850s
Albert Schmidt
This paper examines Benjamin Smith's law firm founded in Horbling, near Sleaford, in 1760 and considers the political implications of one of its client relationships, that with the affluent Heathcote family of Normanton (Rutland) and Folkingham. Here is an good local example of the political role played by country attorneys in that watershed century, 1750 to 1850.

Grand Deviations: The Course of the River Witham in Boston
Neil R Wright
Both historic and cartographic evidence are used to identify the course of the Witham between Anton's Gowt and the centre of Boston before the re-alignment of the river in 1764-66.
Download corrected copies of maps here.

Industrial Archaeology Notes

  • Canwick Hall Sewage Treatment Plant - Alan Singleton
    A gallery of additional illustrations can be viewed
  • Evedon Siding and the Slea Navigation - Stewart Squires

The Historic Environment in Lincolnshire 2008: Archaeology and Historic Buildings
Edited by Mark Bennet
Notes on archaeological work at 63 sites and surveys of 24 historic buildings mainly carried out between 1 April 2008 and 31 December 2008. Also included are notes, compiled by Adam Daubney, on 28 archaeological objects that were reported to the Portable Antiquities Scheme during 2008.

Notes of site investigations in Lincolnshire during 2008 with largely negative results are appended here (listed alphabetically by parish).
(Download HEL-2007-2008-Negative-Interventions.pdf - 25KB)

Book Reviews
Reviews of 25 books and a list of a further 69 books to do with Lincolnshire history, archaeology, places and people, published in 2009.


Click for details --- No. 43 - 2008
No. 43 - 2008
SLHA Journal : Lincolnshire History and Archaeology
No. 43 - 2008

Published 2010

Little Sturton Rediscovered: Part 2: Sturton Old Hall and its owners
Paul Everson, Beryl Lott and David Stocker

Lincolnshire Gentry Houses in Transition: The Architectural Context of Little Sturton Old Hall

Beryl Lott

St Swithin's Church Baumber and the Burial of the Dukes of Newcastle-under-Lyne

Paul Everson and David Stocker

The Historic Environment in Lincolnshire 2007 to 2008

Edited by Mark Bennet
Notes on archaeological work and surveys of historic buildings mainly carried out between 1 April 2007 and 31 March 2008 at approximately 125 sites. Also included are notes, compiled by Adam Daubney, on 22 archaeological objects that were reported to the Portable Antiquities Scheme during 2007.

Notes of site investigations in Lincolnshire during 2007/08 with largely negative results are appended here (listed alphabetically by parish).
Download: HEL-2007-2008-Negative-Interventions.pdf -35KB

Book Reviews

Reviews of 5 books and a list of a further 77 books to do with Lincolnshire history, archaeology, places and people, published in 2008.


Click for details --- No. 42 - 2007
No. 42 - 2007
SLHA Journal : Lincolnshire History and Archaeology
No. 42 - 2007
Flora Murray, 1913-2009, Obituary
Miss Flora Murray's interests and activities were extensive, ranging from civic societies and the Women's Institute, to music, art and architectural societies in the county. She was closely involved with the forerunner societies which eventually became SLHA in 1974. Her outstanding and selfless work was recognised in the award of the OBE in 1972.

Alan Vince, 1952-2009, Obituary
Alan Vince, as a young archaeologist in London, produced pioneering work on the classification of Anglo-Saxon and medieval pottery. He joined the Lincoln Archaeological Unit in 1988 and played a key role in an important series of excavations. As editor of Internet Archaeology, an on-line journal, Alan demonstrated his particular expertise in ICT applications.

Sir Joseph Banks and the Draining of the East, West and Wildmore Fens, 1773 to 1801
R C Wheeler

Thomas Oldham Esq of Saltfleetby: Typical Farmer, Aspiring Gentleman of Plain Eccentric
Christopher Smith

Keeping the Flame Burning: The Revival of the Spalding Gentlemen's Society from 1889 to 1911
Chris Renn

The Ancestry of Baroness Thatcher
Edward J Davies

A Treasure Beneath our Feet: The Fields of Belton in Axholme
Terry Fulton

Industrial Archaeology Notes
  • The Walesby Shaft
    Stewart Squires

Archaeology in Lincolnshire 2006-2007
Edited by Mark Bennet
Notes on archaeological work and surveys of historic buildings mainly carried out between 1 April 2006 and 31 March 2007 at approximately 150 sites. Also included are notes, compiled by Adam Daubney, on 31 archaeological objects that were reported to the Portable Antiquities Scheme during 2006.
Notes of site investigations (pdf document 36.6KB) in Lincolnshire during 2006/07 with largely negative results are appended here (listed alphabetically by parish).

Book Reviews
Reviews of 22 books and a list of a further 105 books to do with Lincolnshire history, archaeology, places and people, published in 2007.
Click for details --- No. 41 - 2006
No. 41 - 2006
SLHA Journal : Lincolnshire History and Archaeology
No. 41 - 2006
Jim Johnston, died 2007, Obituary
Dr Jim Johnston was one of the Society's and Lincolnshire's most eminent historians, best remembered for his pioneering work on probate inventories and his role as Vice-Principal of Bishop Grosseteste College.

Pregion's Progress: The Life and Times of a Lincolnshire Yeoman Family, 1570 to 1753
Joan and Dennis Mills
This study of the Pregion family of Canwick traces its fortunes from the first mention in 1570 to the death of Robert II, the last resident male, in 1724 and on through the female line to 1753. The family developed considerable farming assets in Canwick and Branston, and this wealth ensured that the daughters of Robert II married well, demonstrating how far up the social scale it was possible to travel from yeoman beginnings. This substantial article draws on a succession of probate inventories and various parish records.

Possible Roman Roads from Caistor and a Possible Fort at Cleethorpes
Richard Oliver
The author proposes a Roman route from Caistor to Cleethorpes using as evidence existing roads, trackways and boundaries over a substantial part of the route. The existence of this road supports the theory that a Roman fort existed at Cleethorpes to defend the Humber estuary. A second road is proposed from a point east of Caistor to Healing thence across the Humber to the Yorkshire coast.

An Iron Age Site at South Witham Quarry, Lincolnshire
Kate Nicholson and other contributors
This is a detailed account of two periods of excavation (2002 and 2004) at a site between Thistleton and South Witham which yielded extensive evidence of activity during the Iron Age and first-century AD. Some of the finds suggest structured or votive deposits which could contribute to an understanding of the beliefs and concerns of the population.

A List of the Alderman of Medieval Stamfordf with some light thrown on the dating clauses of medieval property deeds
Alan Rogers
Lists of aldermen from 1337 to 1500 are given together with their sources and explanatory notes. The principal source in the early years is property deeds, and the dates quoted therein contain potential errors. Latterly the sources become more reliable.

Industrial Archaeology Notes
  • Blacksmith's and Saddler's Shop, Market Place, Wragby
    Stewart Squires
    A report on a building originating in the late eighteenth century containing a forge and wheelwright's hooping plate.
  • First World War Searchlight Position, Lincoln
    Mike Osborne
    A description of a searchlight base associated with an anti-aircraft gun known to have been in the vicinity.
  • Wragby Station Building
    David Raines and the Sleaford U3A
    A report of a survey prior to the remodelling of the interior.

Archaeology in Lincolnshire 2005-2006
Edited by Mark Bennet
Notes on archaeological work mainly carried out between 1 April 2005 and 31 March 2006 at approximately 140 sites together with the location of the detailed reports and an additional list of a further 100 sites where little or nothing was found.

Book Reviews
Reviews of 21 books and a list of a further 100 books to do with Lincolnshire history, archaeology, places and people.

Click for details --- No. 40 - 2005
No. 40 - 2005
SLHA Journal : Lincolnshire History and Archaeology
No. 40 - 2005
Little Sturton Rediscovered: Part 1 : The Grange of Kirkstead Abbey
Paul Everson and David Stocker
Sir Frank Stenton suggested that Kirkstead Abbey was first located at Great Sturton prior to a move a few miles along the north bank of the river Witham. There are several strong pointers in the original documents used by Stenton which infer that the early site was probably in Tattershall rather than Sturton. Close examination of several documentary sources and the local topography lend support to the view that Little Sturton in Baumber parish was in fact the site for a grange attached to Kirkstead Abbey.

New Sources Illuminate Lincolnshire Naturalist
Trevor Kerry
Revd Francis Linley Blathwayt (1875-1953) served in Lincolnshire churches until 1919 (later Dorset) and was an outstanding naturalist with a national reputation. A number of documents and other information - listed here - are available to provide detail about his life and work.
(Trevor Kerry has recently published an account of Blathwayt's life entitled: 'Of Roseates and Rectories')

Funerary Activity and Boundary Demarcation in the Lincolnshire Landscape
Nicola Toop and Andrew Copp
A recent archaeological watching brief and evaluation programme, during the construction of a gas pipeline between Silk Willoughby, near Sleaford, Lincolnshire, and Staythorpe Power Station, Newark, Nottinghamshire, encountered remains of all periods, from prehistory to the present day. Some of the most significant finds were represented by late Neolithic to Bronze Age burial monuments, and Iron Age pit alignments, encountered at the sites of Doddington Littlegate, Frieston Road, Normanton Heath, South Rauceby and Quarrington. It is suggested that both forms of monument would have served to demarcate territory and claim land.

The Rich of Bassingham, Lincolnshire 1655-1799
J A Johnston
Five parish documents listing land and property ownership are used to identify the more affluent members of Bassingham (11 miles south-west of Lincoln) over a period of a century and a half. By reference to other parish records the characteristics of these families (e.g. mobility, kinship, multiple landownership) are identified and discussed.
(Dr Jim Johnston, eminent Lincolnshire local historian and lecturer in history at Bishop Grosseteste University College, Lincoln, died in 2007.)

Worlaby and the Witching Shoe: Two Thousand Years of Archaeology in a North Lincolnshire Village
Will Munford
A small excavation linked to housing development revealed a substantial Iron Age ditch, Anglo-Saxon pottery and the remains of medieval domestic properties.

Stagnation and Progress: Contradictions in the Inter-War English Village, Binbrook, Lincolnshire, 1918-1939
Charles Rawding
The countryside of Eastern England during the inter-war period has been chacterised as being in economic decline with dwindling populations. However, as this study of Binbrook in the Lincolnshire Wolds reveals, this was only part of a more complex story where modernisation and change were taking place simultaneously with decline and stagnation.

Jeffrey May, 1936-2006, Obituary
Jeffrey May was one of the pre-eminent prehistorians of Lincolnshire, having worked on its archaeology for some 45 years. Among his many publications was the first volume, Prehistoric Lincolnshire, in the SLHA History of Lincolnshire series.

Industrial Archaeology Notes

  • Burgh Le Marsh Windmill: Its Early History
    Catherine Wilson
    A detailed examination of the various sources of information about the original construction and later refitting of this fine 5-sailed mill in the nineteenth century.
  • Thorganby Hall Waterwheel:
    Jon A Sass
    This small structure, a short distance from Thorganby Hall, houses a breastshot waterwheel which once ground corn but in the first half of the twentieth century powered an electrical generator serving the house and farm buildings.

Archaeology in Lincolnshire: 2004-2005
Site by site notes of work that has taken place at about 80 locations, largely as a result of development controlled by the planning system. (There are also notes of about 60 sites where a watching brief was carried out but results were substantially negative.) Full reports of the work have been deposited with the appropriate Historic Environment Record or Sites and Monuments Record, where they are available for consultation.

Book Reviews
Detailed reviews of 34 books and listing of 113 other newly issued books to do with Lincolnshire history, archaeology, places and people.
Click for details --- No. 39 - 2004
No. 39 - 2004
SLHA Journal : Lincolnshire History and Archaeology
No. 39 - 2004
J S Padley as an Antiquary
R C Wheeler
James Sandby Padley (1792-1881), was born at Mablethorpe and began work as a surveyor with the Ordnance Survey in Lincolnshire in 1819. Circumstances led to his becoming, in effect, Lincoln's principal surveyor from 1825 until his death. Padley soon became a collector of topographical papers (e.g. articles from Archaeologia) and antiquities (Roman amphorae, pottery and sword). He also showed his skill as an artist in a variety of commissions, and his drawings of the Witham Shield and Newport Arch are noteworthy. From the 1840s he completed accomplished sketches of a number of old buildings in the county. In later life his business success appears to have limited the time Padley devoted to his antiquarian interests.

Archaeological Discoveries on the Silk Willoughby to Staythorpe Gas Pipeline
Nicola Toop
The main archaeological findings - briefly reported - associated with this pipeline construction were as follows:
  • Silk Willoughby: four linear features of Roman date;third to fourth-century pottery;medieval plough furrows and enclosure ditch
  • Silk Willoughby: Roman road (Mareham Lane); Bronze Age pottery; Roman burial with pottery
  • North Field: hearth in sub-rectangular pit (undated)
  • Quarrington: Anglo-Saxon cemetery; Bronze Age pits with cremated bone
  • South Rauceby: late Neolithic burial platform; third-century Roman pottery
  • Waterwell Lane: Roman linear features; third to fourth-century sherds
  • Normanton Hill: Linear feature (undated)
  • Normanton Hill: ten pits of late Iron Age
  • Normanton, Grange Farm: linear features; medieval brick
  • Normanton, Lakeside Farm: first to second century AD field system and emclosure; domestic pottery, including Nene valley ware
  • Hough Lodge: medieval furrows
  • Frieston Road: early Bronze Age ring ditch; aligned pits with Bronze Age/Iron Age sherds and hammerstone; Anglo-Saxon grubenhaus with post holes, pottery and bones
  • Sand Beck: linear features and ditches (undated)
  • Doddington Littlegate: Bronze Age cemetery
  • Clensley Lane: Roman pottery; linear feature
  • Doddington Bridge: domestic settlement of first to second century AD
  • Holmes Lane: Linear features and pits; Iron Age pottery
  • Bennington Fen, Fen Farm: Linear features; Roman pottery
  • Bennington Fen, Willow Tree Farm: Linear features (undated)

An Early Anglo-Saxon Cemetery at Quarrington, near Sleaford: Report on Excavations, 2000-2001
Tania M Dickinson
The early Anglo-Saxon cemeteries in the Kesteven part of Lincolnshire form two distinctive distribution patterns: a north-south line along, or just to the west of, the former Roman towns of Lincoln and Ancaster, of which the best known is an outlier near its southern tip, a large mixed-rite site at Loveden Hill; and a cluster in the south-east, of which the best known are Ruskington and Sleaford, essentially inhumation cemeteries but with a handful of cremations each. This paper reports on the excavation of a small inhumation burial site just 2.5 km west-south-west of the Sleaford cemetery in the parish of Quarrington. A detailed illustrated catalogue of graves and grave goods forms a large part of the report; relevant references to both specific field work reports and general texts are included.

The Smith Firm's Partners and their Times: A Postscript
Albert J Schmidt
An article by the author about B Smith and Company, solicitors of Donington and Horbling, was published in Lincolnshire History and Archaeology 37 (2002). Smith's was a rural firm of solicitors which practised in south Lincolnshire without a break for almost 250 years and an extremely large and comprehensive range of business papers and personal records have survived. This follow up article gives details of the firm's activities from 1854 to 1959 and is illustrated by portraits of principal members of the firm from this period.

Industrial Archaeology Notes
  • Site of a Woad Mill in Tattershall Road, Boston
    Neil Wright

    Details of the various elements of this site are extracted from surveys of the area undertaken prior to development by railway companies. Other information is extracted from trade directories and census returns. The mill was demolished in the early 1850s.
  • Horkstow Bridge: The Chain Anchorages
    Chris Lester

    Access to the chambers surrounding the anchorages revealed the housing of the anchor plates. There are explanatory drawings and photographs.
  • Railway Footbridges, South Common, Lincoln
    David Raines

    A brief note of the former GNR footbridges on the edge of Lincoln's South Common, with photograph and drawings.
  • Tathwell Lake and Water Supply
    Chris Lester & Ken Redmore

    This artificial lake supplied water via a ram pump to at least two farms in the village. A photograph and drawings accompany the account.
  • Dogdyke Pumping Station, near Tattershall
    David Raines
    A brief description of this mid-nineteenth century pumping station, with drawings and photograph of scoop wheel.
  • King's Mill, Stamford
    David Raines

    This watermill alongside the Welland close to the town centre has medieval origins. A brief note with photograph and drawings.

Archaeology in Lincolnshire: 2003-2004
Site by site notes of work that has taken place at over 160 locations, largely as a result of development controlled by the planning system. (There are also notes of about 110 sites where a watching brief was carried out.) Full reports of the work have been deposited with the appropriate Historic Environment Record or Sites and Monuments Record, where they are available for consultation.

Book Reviews
Detailed reviews of 8 books and listing of 83 other newly issued books to do with Lincolnshire history, archaeology, places and people.

Click for details --- No. 38 - 2003
No. 38 - 2003
SLHA Journal : Lincolnshire History and Archaeology
No. 38 - 2003
Hall Farm, Baston, Lincolnshire: Investigation of a Late Saxon Village and Medieval Manorial Complex
Gary Taylor
A lengthy illustrated report on two years of excavation and geophysical survey at a 200m x 200m site south of the church in Baston (TF114138). Saxo-Norman material from the ninth to mid-twelfth century includes pottery; post-holes of a timber structure; animal bones; iron smithy. Medieval deposits form the mid-twelfth to mid-fourteenth century contain: iron industrial residues; stone walls; pottery; tiles; animal and fish bones; hearths and ovens; grain pits. The nature of the settlements and the significance of the various finds are discussed in detail.

Traiectus/Tric/Skegness: A Domesday Name Explained
Arthur Owen and Richard Coates
Linguistic and documentary evidence is marshalled to support the name Tric for a settlement at or near Skegness, the probable crossing point for a ferry to Norfolk in Roman times.

Tuxford and Sons of Boston - a Family Business
Neil R Wright
Tuxford and Sons, an engineering firm that rose to international standing, operated in Boston from the 1840s to 1880s. This article looks at the firm’s origins and development, with particular reference to the contribution of the various family members and the succession of sites in the town occupied by the firm.

Archaeology in Lincolnshire 2002-03
Site by site notes of work that has taken place at over 180 locations, largely as a result of development controlled by the planning system. Full reports of the work have been deposited with the appropriate Historic Environment Record or Sites and Monuments Record, where they are available for consultation.

Industrial Archaeology Notes
  • Claxby Ironstone Mine
    Stewart Squires
    Follow-up article to correct previous interpretation of surface workings relating to the railway siding, main mine entrance and surface tramway.
  • RAF North Coates Missile Site
    John T Turner
    An outline of the history of the site and note of remaining structures - control buildings for Type 82 and 87 radar arrays; launch control block and pads for Bristol Bloodhound missiles.
  • Whitehaven Farm, Horncastle
    Catherine Wilson and Ken Redmore
    Description and drawings of farm buildings and house for a 50-acre smallholding built c1922. Construction is in situ concrete.

Book Reviews
Detailed reviews of 17 books and listing of 115 other newly issued books to do with Lincolnshire history, archaeology, places and people.
Click for details --- No. 36 - 2001
No. 36 - 2001
SLHA Journal : Lincolnshire History and Archaeology
No. 36 - 2001
Click for details --- No. 35 - 2000
No. 35 - 2000
SLHA Journal : Lincolnshire History and Archaeology
No. 35 - 2000
Click for details --- No. 32 - 1997
No. 32 - 1997
SLHA Journal : Lincolnshire History and Archaeology
No. 32 - 1997
Click for details --- No. 29 - 1994
No. 29 - 1994
SLHA Journal : Lincolnshire History and Archaeology
No. 29 - 1994
Click for details --- No. 27 - 1992
No. 27 - 1992
SLHA Journal : Lincolnshire History and Archaeology
No. 27 - 1992
  1. Bronze Age and Early Iron Age Pottery from Pits at Barnetby Wold Farm
    Peter Didsbury and Ken Steedman

  2. The South Bail Gates of Lincoln
    Christopher Johnson and Alan Vince

  3. Lincolnshire and the East Midlands: A Historian's Perspective
    J V Beckett

  4. Social Change in the Eighteenth Century: The Evidence in Wills from Six Lincolnshire Parishes
    J A Johnston

  5. The Tennyson d'Eyncourt Nicknames
    J Murray

  6. Castle Carlton: The Origins of a Medieval 'New Town'
    A E B Owen

  7. Industrial Archaeology Notes
    (a) Lincoln: Cross o'Cliff Brickworks

Click for details --- No. 26 - 1991
No. 26 - 1991
SLHA Journal : Lincolnshire History and Archaeology
No. 26 - 1991

  1. Professor Maurice Barley: Obituary

  2. Michael Lloyd: Obituary
  3. 1771 and 1791: A Study in Population Mobility
    Ruth Tinley and Dennis Mills
  4. Working-Class Pleasure Excursions to and from Lincoln, 1846 to 1914
    Eleanor Nannestad
  5. Lady Franklin in Lincolnshire, 1835
    Christopher Sturman
  6. Mr Walkington's Verses to my Lord Cranbourne
    Joan Williams
  7. New Evidence for a Romano-British Greyware Pottery Industry in the Trent Valley
    F N Field and C P H Palmer-Brown
  8. Survey of the Roman Fort and Multi-Period Settlement Complex at Kirmington on the Lincolnshire Wolds: A Non-Destructive Approach
    Dilwyn Jones & J B Whitwell

  9. Archaeology in Lincolnshire and South Humberside, 1990
    Naomi Field
Click for details --- No. 25 - 1990
No. 25 - 1990
SLHA Journal : Lincolnshire History and Archaeology
No. 25 - 1990
Click for details --- No. 17 - 1982
No. 17 - 1982
SLHA Journal : Lincolnshire History and Archaeology
No. 17 - 1982
Click for details --- No. 15 - 1980
No. 15 - 1980
SLHA Journal : Lincolnshire History and Archaeology
No. 15 - 1980
  1. Roman Coin Hoards from Lincolnshire
    R W Higginbottom

  2. Thomas 'Governor' Pownall and the Roman Villa at Glentworth, Lincolnshire
    Paul Everson

  3. Herefrith of Louth, Saint and Bishop: A Problem of Identities
    A E B Owen

  4. The Work of the Heckington Lodge of Masons, 1315-1345
    W D Wilson

  5. A Fifteenth-Century Headmaster's Library
    Charles Garton

  6. A Charity School Movement? The Lincolnshire Evidence
    D H Webster

  7. Navigations and the Mid-Lincolnshire Economy, 1790-1830
    R Acton

  8. Industrial Archaeology Notes
    (a) Grantham: Dysart Road Railway Bridge
    (b) Grimsby: Dock Towers and Hydraulic Installations
    (c) Lincoln: Motherby Hill Street Furniture
    (d) Messingham: Mill
Click for details --- No. 14 - 1979
No. 14 - 1979
SLHA Journal : Lincolnshire History and Archaeology
No. 14 - 1979
Click for details --- No. 13 - 1978
No. 13 - 1978
SLHA Journal : Lincolnshire History and Archaeology
No. 13 - 1978
  1. Risby Warren, An Occupation Site from the Mesolithic to the Early Bronze Age
    D N Riley

  2. Billingborough Bronze Age Settlement: An Interim Note
    Peter Chowne

  3. Excavations at the Church of SS Peter and Paul, Healing, South Humberside
    Hal Bishop

  4. Some Little-Known Ladies of Lincolnshire, 1603-1640
    Helena Hajzyk

  5. Boston's Early Stuart Elections. 1604-1640
    John K Gruenfelder

  6. The 'Roman Bridge' at Scawby
    M J T Lewis and J R Samuels

  7. From Canon Foster to the Lincolnshire Archives Office
    Sir Francis Hill

  8. Industrial Archaeology Notes, 1977
    Compiled by Catherine M Wilson

    (a) Aubourn: Watermill
    (b) Barton on Humber: Humber Mill (windmill)
    (c) East Lincolnshire Railway: Crossing Keepers' Cottages
    (d) Grantham: Belton Lane Road Bridge
    (e) Grantham: St Catherine's Road Bridge
    (f) Long Sutton: Sneath's Mill (windmill)
    (g) Tattershall: Bridge over the Witham
    (h) Brigg: Sergeant's Brewery

  9. Archaeology in Lincolnshire and South Humbersdide, 1977
    compiled by Andrew White

  10. Notes and Documents
    A Second Jewish Scola in Lincoln
    C P C Johnson

Click for details --- No. 12 - 1977
No. 12 - 1977
SLHA Journal : Lincolnshire History and Archaeology
No. 12 - 1977
  1. A Romano-British Pottery Kiln at Claxby, Lincolnshire : Excavation, Discussion and Experimental Firings
    Geoffrey F Bryant

  2. Alexander's Frieze on Lincoln Minster
    E C Fernie

  3. Cherry Lane, Barrow-on-Humber, South Humberside
    John Samuels

  4. Some Economic Dealings of Prior John the Almoner of Spalding, 1253-74
    E D Jones

  5. The Oddfellows Hall, Grimsby, and its Place in the Social Life of the Town
    T H Storey

  6. The Parish and the Housing of the Working Class in Lindsey, 1790-1850
    J A Perkins

  7. Industrial Archaeology Notes. 1976
    compiled by Catherine M Wilson
        (a) Algarkirk: Woad Mill
        (b) Barton on Humber: Clapson's Boatyard
        (c) Boston: Lincoln's Warehouse
        (d) Elkesley: Water Pumping Station
        (e) Grantham: Bjorlow Leather Works
        (f) Grantham: Coles Cranes Factory
        (g) Grimsby: Hewitt's Maltings
        (h) Horncastle: Old Theatre
        (i) Lincoln: Fison's Factory
        (j) Lincoln: Stamp End Lock Footbridge
        (k) Roxby: Horse Gin

        (l) Waddington: Lincoln Brick Company

   8. Archaeology in Lincolnshire and South Humberside, 1976
       compiled by A J White

   9. Book Notes and Reviews, 1976

Click for details --- No. 10 - 1975
No. 10 - 1975
SLHA Journal : Lincolnshire History and Archaeology
No. 10 - 1975
Click for details --- No. 4 - 1969
No. 4 - 1969
SLHA Journal : Lincolnshire History and Archaeology
No. 4 - 1969
  1. Kesteven Headstones and their Engravers
    David Neave and Vanessa Heron
  2. John Lyly and Lincolnshire
    Anne Lancashire
  3. The Cecil Family and the Development of Nineteenth Cntury Stamford
    Stuart Elliott
  4. Parliamentary Electors in Lincolnshire in the Fifteenth Century (continued)
    Alan Rogers
  5. Excavations at Somerby, Lincolnshire, 1957
    Dennis C Mynard
  6. The Deserted Medieval Village of Snarford, Lincolnshire
    Stanley E West

  7. Archaeological Notes 1968
    J B Whitwell & C M Wilson

  8. Notes & Documents
    * Advice to Lord Willoughby, c.1601 (letter from John Guevara)
    * How to Choose Good Soldiers (from the commonplace book of the Heneages of Hainton, mid-17th century)
    * Cleethorpes 1886-1888 (notes by the Revd Herbert Randolph)

  9. Book Notes


Click for details --- No. 2 - 1967
No. 2 - 1967
SLHA Journal : Lincolnshire History and Archaeology
No. 2 - 1967
Click for details --- No. 1 - 1966
No. 1 - 1966
SLHA Journal : Lincolnshire History and Archaeology
No. 1 - 1966